It is widely acknowledged that a person’s emotional state has a significant influence on their behaviour. Making decisions can be challenging when there is no indication of how an individual is feeling emotionally.
It is truly remarkable to witness the transformation of the websites of some of the most renowned businesses of the past decade. When we consider the fact that these websites were only established a decade ago, the progress they have made since then is remarkable.
In the early days of commercial website usage, the primary focus was on providing users with an abundance of information, rather than an enjoyable experience. However, modern websites are now subject to rigorous investigation and data mining, with the goal of delivering the most relevant information, features, and choices to the user in an aesthetically pleasing way.
In recent years, more and more businesses have been utilising the insights of psychology to enhance customer engagement and boost sales. By transforming what was once considered an art form into a science, companies are able to gain a deeper understanding of their customers and create an environment that encourages customer loyalty.
It is important to consider the emotional and psychological needs of the user when creating a good design. This requires an understanding of persuasive design, which uses cognitive processes to influence how people behave. By taking this approach, designers can incorporate the psychological and emotional needs of the user into the creative process.
Many people often have a negative connotation associated with the term “persuasion”, perceiving it as a form of manipulation and the utilisation of unethical methods. However, it is essential to note that this is not the focus of this discussion. It is important to acknowledge that persuasive design can be used to create a more pleasurable experience for users when navigating websites, as it takes into account their psychology, motivations and behaviours.
For example, Amazon employs mimetic and persuasive tactics such as “customers who saw this item also purchased…” to encourage shoppers to spend more by suggesting related items and accessories. Furthermore, they offer customers the convenience of a “one-click purchase” feature, allowing them to quickly and easily complete their transaction.
As we increasingly spend more time on the internet, it is important for designers to take into account our offline habits and preferences to create more enjoyable digital experiences. By making minor alterations to an existing website or designing a brand new app, designers can leverage their knowledge to create a more engaging and satisfying user experience. With the right design, users can find their time spent on the internet to be more enjoyable and rewarding.
Specifically, how can a designer make better use of the current findings in psychological science to increase the effectiveness of their designs?
As a result of your familiarity with psychological concepts, you will be able to articulate the reasoning behind your efforts. It can:
- Fill in the gaps where user research is lacking by providing evidence and information.
- Assist in establishing the veracity of your design and your justifications to a customer.
So, let’s talk about some of the speculations.
The human instinct to strive for mastery is deeply rooted in our history. According to renowned psychologist Abraham Maslow, our fundamental needs, such as health, food, and sleep, form a hierarchy of needs that can only be fulfilled when we are able to exert control over our environment. This desire to dominate and shape our surroundings has been ingrained in us since the dawn of humanity.
As an expert User Experience (UX) Designer, I am here to tell you that you have the ability to modify the brightness of your display, turn off alerts, and decide whether your phone should connect to both the data and phone network. Even if these changes don’t make your phone’s battery last any longer, you should still feel empowered and in control of your own experience with your device.
Motivation, Capability, and Trigger
In order to successfully persuade a consumer in a digital environment, it is critical to understand the fundamentals of the Fogg Behavioural Model. This model states that a consumer will take action when they are both motivated and able to do so, and when they are exposed to a trigger. Therefore, for a consumer to take action, all three of these components must be present in order for the desired behaviour to occur.
In the book Design for the Mind: Seven Psychological Principles of Persuasive Design, TurboTax is used as an example of effective persuasive design.
Despite the fact that it is not something we enjoy, completing our taxes is a necessary task. The US tax system, like the tax systems of other countries, is highly complex and can be difficult for the average person to understand. Fortunately, TurboTax makes filing taxes easy and convenient by providing consumers with a straightforward, step-by-step process. Rather than having to complete lengthy paperwork, users can quickly and easily answer a few questions to complete their taxes. Moreover, the added benefit of filing taxes online with an accompanying electronic payment makes the process even simpler.
It may appear counterintuitive to search for situations that provide a combination of motivation and capability that can act as an effective stimulus. It is reasonable for one of these qualities to be of greater importance. An exemplary case of this is tweeting, which can be done with minimal enthusiasm but with great proficiency and initiative.
Designers may use this notion to reflect on how they are preparing consumers to do a behaviour before asking them to do so.
Motivationgives someone a purpose to work on the activity
Capabilityenables individuals to realise their potential and finish the job
Triggersarise in our surroundings or our minds and cause us to act upon them
Though they each need for more study, notions like these may significantly improve user experiences when building interfaces.
The concepts of scarcity and Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) are two psychological theories that can be quickly incorporated into designs without the need for extensive study. These theories leverage the human instinct to want something more when it is in limited supply, or to not want to miss out on a desirable opportunity.
Get People to Pay Attention to You
Psychologists have been fixated on the decline of attention spans for decades.
For some time, technology has enabled us to monitor a user’s eye movements and determine the amount of time they spend looking at a particular location. Our perception of a website is instantaneous; if it does not meet our preferences, we are likely to leave within a few seconds.
EyeQuant Persuasive Design has developed an advanced prediction algorithm that builds upon the concept of eye tracking data. This innovative service provides a unique alternative to traditional eye tracking tools; with EyeQuant, users can submit a design mockup to the website, and receive feedback on how users are likely to interpret and interact with it. Through this intuitive platform, EyeQuant facilitates a deeper understanding of how users interact with designs, empowering businesses to create more effective, persuasive experiences.
After conducting rigorous testing with a group of German volunteers, a comprehensive database was compiled that provides valuable insight into the most effective ways to capture and maintain a user’s attention.
The cost of eye tracking software can vary significantly, so an alternative way to gain insight into which parts of a website are the most popular with visitors is to use online analytics tools such as Sumo Heat Maps. However, it is important to take into account that users’ attention can be diverted away from more important activities, even if we are able to successfully capture their attention.
Designers can utilise tools such as eye tracking and heat maps to rapidly and objectively evaluate designs. Doing so can be beneficial in verifying the validity of UX hypotheses, collecting data to inform design decisions, and running A/B experiments to discover the most optimal solution.
Desire in Imitation
Do you ever find yourself wanting the same things as those around you? The concept of mediated desire, which was put forward by Rene Girard, suggests that when a person expresses a desire for something, others become attracted to that same object as well. Marketers have taken advantage of this phenomenon and have seen great success in doing so.
It has been suggested that mirror neurons exist in humans, as discussed in Darren Bridger‘s book Neuro Design. This means that when one person performs an action, such as picking up an object, the observer’s brain may mimic that action. This phenomenon appears to be exhibited by both you and I, as we have both demonstrated considerable aptitude for mimicry.
Because of the principle of “mimetic desire,” we are more likely to want something if we observe that someone else has it.
Testimonials are an example of the “user proof” approach, which is a method of providing evidence that a product or service works. User testimonials are particularly powerful when they come from people who can relate to the user’s experience. For instance, Foundrmag makes use of the user’s own words and also includes their photograph, which triggers the observer’s mirror neurons and helps to create a deeper connection.
The utilisation of “expert social proof” is an additional technique that can be utilised. This occurs when an authoritative figure, such as a renowned blogger in your industry, vouches for your product. Mentions on Twitter, quotes in the media, and blog posts are all forms of this. Google employed this approach in their most recent promotional effort for the Pixel phone.
The Future of Design and Psychological Theory
This is an exciting moment to be a designer because we have the tools and the science to back up what we do.
As society advances, we are increasingly embracing interactional technologies such as touch, speech, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR) and the Internet of Things (IoT). This shift necessitates the need for more natural and intuitive ways for consumers to interact with their devices.
New possibilities in design will emerge, and psychology will play an important part in shaping them.
In the near future, we can expect to see a shift from touch-based to brainwave-based interactions with electronic devices. This technology is already available and enables users to control their devices solely with their thoughts. This revolutionary development promises to revolutionise the way we interact with the digital world, making it more intuitive and efficient.
As we continue to gain a better understanding of people’s thoughts and emotions, psychological elements in design and the moral obligations of the designer are becoming increasingly essential components of the creative process. This is reflective of the importance of recognising how our designs may affect the well-being of individuals, and striving to ensure that our creations bring nothing but benefit to those who interact with them.
Designers can further enhance their design toolkit by incorporating the four persuasive design strategies discussed in addition to analytics, user research, empathy mapping, and other approaches that can aid in making design decisions and refining the product.
Crafting a website to sway people’s opinions isn’t inherently bad Using technology can be an invaluable asset to any designer, but it must be used responsibly and with care. If the proper amount of time and effort is put in to understand and utilise the technology, it can be a powerful tool. Unfortunately, it can also be misused if not handled correctly. Therefore, it is important to ensure that it is used in an appropriate and productive manner.