Today, the demand for software engineers is at an all-time high. For those looking to progress their technical careers, it is essential to be proficient in coding languages. According to the US Bureau of Labour Statistics, the demand for software engineers, including software developers, is projected to increase by a staggering 22% between 2022 and 2030, in comparison to a mere 4% for other occupations.
If you are looking to advance your skills as a developer and secure a successful future, it is essential that you familiarise yourself with the most popular programming languages. To gain an understanding of the various levels and types of programming languages, as well as the methods used to measure their popularity, before we explore the best programming languages to learn in 2023.
Programming language levels
In order to construct instructions for computers, each programming language has a specific purpose, syntax, and set of keywords. The primary components of programming languages typically consist of the following layers:
Languages of low level
Low-level programming languages, such as machine code, assembly-level languages, BASIC, FORTRAN, Cobol, and C, provide limited abstraction from a computer’s set of instructions. Programs written in these languages are not easily transferrable to other systems and are often difficult for humans to interpret or understand.
High-level programming languages, such as Java, PHP, C#, and Swift, offer robust abstractions that significantly simplify the process of problem solving. Moreover, these languages tend to be less prone to errors and their code is not dependent on the type of machine used. Additionally, these languages are relatively easy to learn and maintain, making them ideal for a variety of applications.
Programming language types
Languages for procedural programmingIn order to address a given issue, procedural programming languages are used to execute a sequence of instructions. These languages are distinct from functional programming languages in that they involve the utilisation of multiple variables, intricate loops, and components. Examples of procedural programming languages include BASIC, FORTRAN, C, and Java.
Languages for functional programmingIn order to perform computations, a functional programming language focuses on the result that needs to be achieved rather than the process used to achieve it. This programming language does not make use of control structures such as loops or conditional expressions. Popular examples of functional programming languages are Python, Haskell, Clojure, Erlang, and Lisp.
Programming languages for scriptingScripting programming languages are utilised to make use of run-time instructions, enabling them to interconnect and communicate with external programs and applications. These languages are extensively used in a variety of different contexts, such as web applications, multimedia, gaming applications, and system management. Popular examples of scripting programming languages include Python, Ruby, Node.js, Perl, and Bash.
Programming logicLogic programming is a type of programming which is based on formal logic. By utilising facts and logical inferences, logic programming can be used to perform computations. Examples of logic programming languages include Prologue, Answer Set Programming (ASP) and Datalog, all of which are designed to express facts and rules about a particular problem area.
Top indices for tracking coding language metrics
Certain tools, such as indexes, can be beneficial when attempting to comprehend a particular topic; in this case, which programming language is the most widely used? These indexes evaluate programming languages based on criteria including, but not limited to, the language’s popularity, reliability, and ease of use.
- Search engine and social media platform rankings
- Job postings referencing the language
- Language-specific open-source projects
- Language-related videos
- Students enrolling in language classes
Metrics tracking indices:
The PYPL IndexThe PYPL Popularity of Programming Language index is based on data derived from Google Trends, providing a reliable measure of the relative search volume of developers seeking tutorials for various programming languages. As such, this index is indicative of the current interest and usage of each language among developers.
The TIOBE IndexThe TIOBE Programming Community Index is a ranking system used to determine the most popular programming languages. It is based on the number of queries made on major search engines such as Google, YouTube, Bing, Wikipedia, Amazon, and others. This index is a powerful tool for determining the popularity of programming languages, allowing developers to make informed decisions when selecting a language for a particular project.
Python, C, Java, and C++ are the top four languages with the highest TIOBE ratings.
The IEEE SpectrumThe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) generates rankings by gathering 11 metrics from eight of the most prominent sources, such as Google, GitHub, Twitter, Stackoverflow, Reddit, Hacker News, Career Builder, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library. This data is then analysed and organised according to factors such as trends, job searches, and custom rankings.
- Surveys for Stackoverflow Developers
Which languages are the greatest to learn?
Now that you have a basic understanding of programming levels, types of programming languages, and popularity rankings, let us delve into which programming languages are the best to learn in 2023.
PythonPython has enjoyed an unparalleled level of success among programming languages for a number of years. This success has been amplified by major tech corporations such as Netflix, Facebook, and Khan Academy, who have chosen to utilise Python as their primary development language.
Python is a powerful and versatile programming language capable of handling a variety of tasks, ranging from simple scripting to complex web applications and artificial intelligence. One example of such a tool is TensorFlow, an open-source machine learning software developed by Google and designed to be compatible with Python. With the help of this software, developers can quickly create and deploy machine learning models, enabling them to unlock the potential of artificial intelligence and machine learning.
Python is one of the most powerful and widely-used data science tools available, and its potential for simplifying and enhancing machine learning processes is considerable. Evidence of this can be seen in the sheer number of job postings in Python-related roles across the web: Glassdoor currently shows thousands of positions available, while Indeed.com lists more than 14,000 openings.
JavaJava is an incredibly versatile programming language that has been utilised by developers around the world for decades. It is widely regarded as one of the most popular languages for DevOps, virtual reality, big data, mobile chatbots, and continuous integration applications due to its robust feature set, scalability, and flexibility. Java is the language of choice for many developers because of its stability, reliability, and compatibility with a wide range of development platforms.
Android is the most widely used operating system in the smartphone market, with a current market share of 85 percent. Java is the primary programming language that is used to build and power the tech stacks of many of the world’s leading companies, including Airbnb, Google, Netflix, Instagram, Uber, Amazon, and Spotify.
Java is undoubtedly one of the most widely used and sought-after programming languages for software development professionals. Every year, an astounding number of one billion copies of Java are downloaded, which speaks to its immense popularity. Java is the preferred language for 97 percent of businesses, further solidifying its role as the number one choice for software developers. Additionally, the increased demand for Java developers is driven by the need for mobile applications for goods and services, making it an extremely valuable skill for any software development professional to have.
PHPPHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose, server-side scripting language that is used to create dynamic and interactive websites. Through its versatile capabilities, developers are able to incorporate PHP into HTML, allowing them to write simple programs that can enhance the user experience.
Despite having limited knowledge and experience in web development, PHP is one of the most straightforward languages to learn and utilise. Not only is it straightforward to use, but it is also compatible with all major operating systems, such as MAC OS, Windows, and Linux.
Based on the statistics provided by WS Techs, it can be seen that 78.9 percent of all websites with a known server-side programming language utilise PHP. This means that 8 out of 10 websites on the Internet are using PHP in some capacity.
C++C++ is a modernised version of the C programming language, commonly used by developers to develop applications for operating systems and mobile devices. It provides developers with the tools to create basic applications as well as more sophisticated mobile apps.
C++ is a widely-used programming language that enables the rapid development of applications across a range of industries, including gaming, web development, machine learning, and data mining. Its high performance capabilities make it the go-to choice for applications that require speed and efficiency.
SwiftSwift, a programming language developed by Apple, is renowned for its speed, security, interactivity, and modernity. Recent statistics indicate that iOS holds 57.65 percent of the mobile operating system market share in the United States, highlighting the fact that Swift is the most widely-used programming language for Apple devices.
KotlinKotlin has become increasingly popular among Android developers due to its straightforward and user-friendly nature compared to Java. Furthermore, its ability to be compatible with Java means that developers can continue working on existing projects without having to start from the beginning. This makes Kotlin an attractive option for those who are looking to make efficient progress in their coding journey.
According to a recent report, Kotlin is one of the three most popular programming languages that businesses are aiming to transition to by 2022. It is already in use by a number of major technology companies, including Google, Trello, Netflix, and Amazon. Furthermore, Uber and Pinterest are in the process of migrating their applications from Java to Kotlin.
So, which programming language should you learn in 2023?
By honing your skills in the most sought-after programming languages, you can open up a wealth of new opportunities for yourself, regardless of your current level of experience in software engineering. Whether you are an experienced developer looking to boost your employability or a novice hoping to enter the world of software development, learning the programming languages that are currently in high demand can provide a major advantage in the job market.
In order to determine which languages to study, it is beneficial to evaluate the rankings, ratings, and popularity of languages by consulting the indices provided above. Please leave a comment informing us which programming language you would like to learn by the year 2023.
Can I work as a programmer from home?
Yes, it is absolutely possible to find a high-paying, remote software engineering job with a major US-based firm. Thanks to the advancement of technology, many of these opportunities are now available online and are in high demand. Utilising the services of a website such as Works can help you find one of these jobs from the convenience of your own home.
At Works, we strive to provide developers with the opportunity to build meaningful and successful careers by connecting them with industry-leading projects that are pushing the boundaries of innovation. Our goal is to help match developers with jobs that are tailored to their individual skills and ambitions, including positions in React, Node, Python, Angular, Swift, React Native, Android, Java, Rails, Golang, DevOps, ML, and Data Engineering. With our assistance, developers can take their career to the next level.
What programming language will be in high demand in 2023?In 2022, the most in-demand programming languages to learn are:
Is it worthwhile to study Python in 2023?In 2022, Python remains an invaluable language for developers to learn. Not only is it straightforward to use, but it is incredibly versatile, allowing developers to demonstrate a range of coding skills. According to Statista, an impressive 48.2 percent of developers worldwide are already utilising the language, making it an invaluable tool for any aspiring programmer.
Should I study Python or Java in 2023?Python is widely regarded as an excellent language for beginner programmers due to its straightforward syntax, intuitive language structure, and user-friendly features. By comparison, Java is better suited for more advanced students, as it is a highly structured language that requires a high level of technical proficiency in order to construct even basic programs.
What is the most lucrative programming language?Python, Java, Golang, Ruby, C++, C#, SQL, and other high-paying programming languages.
What is the most difficult programming language?Malbolge, LISP, Haskell, and Prologue are examples of programming languages.
Is it worthwhile to study C++ in 2023?C++ is an object-oriented programming language that has proven to be invaluable in many applications. Its impressive performance, speed, efficiency, and accuracy make it an essential language to master by 2023. Its versatility, coupled with its robust feature set, make it an ideal choice for developers seeking to create highly efficient and reliable software.