8 Programming Languages in High Demand in 2023

Thinking ahead to 2023, many are wondering which programming languages will be most sought-after. The question frequently arises: should one focus on Python or Java? Let’s delve into this inquiry!

The need for software engineers is currently unprecedented. For individuals looking to advance in their careers within the tech industry, it is crucial to possess a strong proficiency in coding languages. As per the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for software engineers, which also encompasses software developers, is forecast to grow at a remarkable rate of 22% from 2022 to 2030; compared to the mere 4% growth that many other occupations are expected to experience.

If your aim is to enhance your development skills and secure a successful future, it is crucial to acquaint yourself with the most widely used programming languages. To gain an understanding of the varying levels and categories of programming languages, as well as the criteria implemented to determine their popularity, we will initially examine the optimal programming languages to study in 2023.

Levels of Programming Languages

Programming languages possess a distinct syntax, set of keywords, and intended purpose for creating commands to operate computers. The fundamental elements of programming languages typically comprise of the following categories:

Low-Level Programming Languages

Low-level programming languages, including machine code, assembly-level languages, BASIC, FORTRAN, Cobol, and C, provide limited abstraction from a computer’s instruction set. Programs that are coded in these languages may not easily be moved to other systems and can be challenging for humans to interpret or comprehend.

High-Level Programming Languages

High-level programming languages, such as Java, PHP, C#, and Swift, provide powerful abstractions that greatly facilitate problem-solving tasks. Additionally, their code is not machine-dependent, decreasing the likelihood of errors. Furthermore, these languages are relatively easy to grasp and sustain, making them highly adaptable for diverse applications.

Types of Programming Languages

  1. Procedural Programming Languages

    Procedural programming languages are adopted for running a series of instructions that lead to addressing a specific issue. These languages differ from functional programming languages, since they require the implementation of complex loops, multiple variables and constituent parts. Examples of procedural programming languages include C, BASIC, Java, and FORTRAN.
  2. Functional Programming Languages

    A functional programming language stresses on the outcome that needs to be produced, instead of the procedure undertaken to achieve it, for carrying out computations. These programming languages do not incorporate control structures such as loops or conditional expressions. Some of the commonly used functional programming languages include Python, Haskell, Clojure, Erlang, and Lisp.
  3. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Languages

    Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming language method that subdivides software into manageable code structures called classes. Each class functions as a blueprint for generating separate object instances, which can be controlled through data and function encapsulation within the class. Popular examples of OOP languages include C++, Python, Java, and JavaScript.
  4. Scripting Programming Languages

    Scripting programming languages are employed to utilize runtime instructions, which allows them to interact and communicate with external programs and applications. These languages are extensively used in various contexts, including multimedia, web applications, gaming applications, and system administration. Popular examples of scripting programming languages include Ruby, Python, Node.js, Perl, and Bash.
  5. Programming Logic

    Logic programming is a programming method that is based on formal logic. By utilizing facts and logical deductions, logic programming can be used for computational purposes. Examples of logic programming languages include Answer Set Programming (ASP), Prologue, and Datalog, all created to explain facts and rules about a specific problem domain.

Leading Indices for Monitoring Programming Language Metrics

Indexes are particularly helpful tools for comprehending a particular topic, such as determining the most widely used programming language. These indicators assess programming languages based on a variety of criteria, including popularity, reliability, and ease of use, among others.

  • Rankings on search engines and social media platforms
  • Job advertisements mentioning the language
  • Open-Source Projects Specific to the Language
  • Videos on the Language
  • Enrollment of Students in Language Courses

Indices for Tracking Metrics:

  • The PYPL Index

    The PYPL Popularity of Programming Language index is based on data retrieved from Google Trends and provides a reliable measure of the relative search volume of developers seeking tutorials for various programming languages. Therefore, this index indicates the current interest and usage of each language among developers.
    Python, Java, JavaScript, and C are the top four programming languages according to PYPL in 2022.
  • The TIOBE Index

    The TIOBE Programming Community Index is a ranking system utilized to determine the most popular programming languages. It is based on the number of search queries made on major search engines such as Google, YouTube, Bing, Wikipedia, Amazon, and others. This index is a potent tool for identifying the popularity of programming languages, enabling developers to make informed decisions when choosing a language for a specific project.
    Python, C, Java, and C++ are the top four languages with the highest TIOBE scores.
  • The IEEE Spectrum

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) generates rankings by gathering 11 metrics from eight of the most prominent sources, such as Google, GitHub, Twitter, Stackoverflow, Reddit, Hacker News, Career Builder, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library. This data is then analyzed and organized based on factors such as trends, job searches, and custom rankings.
    C, C++, Java, and JavaScript are the top four programming languages, according to IEEE in 2021.
  • Stackoverflow Developer Surveys

    Stackoverflow is a popular Q&A website for developers. JavaScript, HTML/CSS, SQL, and Python are the top four programming languages, as ranked by Stackoverflow in 2021.

What are the top programming languages to learn?

Having grasped the fundamental concept of programming levels, programming language types, and popularity rankings, let us now explore the programming languages that are regarded as the best to learn in 2023.

  1. Python

    Python has attained an unparalleled level of success among programming languages for several years by now. Major tech corporations, such as Netflix, Facebook, and Khan Academy, have contributed to this success by opting to use Python as their primary development language.

    Python is a powerful and versatile programming language that can handle a variety of tasks, ranging from simple scripting to complex web applications and artificial intelligence. TensorFlow is one instance of such a tool, an open-source machine learning software created by Google and made to be compatible with Python. This software aid developers in building and launching machine learning models quickly, allowing them to tap into the potential of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

    Python is one of the most powerful and commonly used data science tools available, and its potential for improving and simplifying machine learning processes is substantial. This can be observed through the vast number of job listings for Python-related positions across the web: Glassdoor currently shows several thousand positions available, while Indeed.com lists over 14,000 openings.
  2. Java

    Java is an incredibly adaptable programming language that has been in use by developers worldwide for decades. Due to its robust feature set, scalability, and flexibility, it is widely regarded as one of the most desirable languages for DevOps, virtual reality, big data, mobile chatbots, and continuous integration applications. Many developers consider Java to be their language of choice due to its stability, reliability, and compatibility with a wide range of development platforms.

    Android is currently the most widely used operating system in the smartphone market, with an 85 percent market share. Java is the primary programming language used to build and fuel the tech stacks of numerous leading companies worldwide, including Airbnb, Google, Netflix, Instagram, Uber, Amazon, and Spotify.

    Java is undeniably one of the most commonly used and sought-after programming languages for software development professionals. Every year, an astonishing one billion copies of Java are downloaded, which speaks volumes about its immense popularity. Java is the preferred language for 97 percent of businesses, further solidifying its position as the top choice for software developers. Furthermore, the increasing demand for Java developers is driven by the requirement for mobile applications for goods and services, making it an incredibly valuable skill for any software development professional.
  3. JavaScript

    Over 1.8 million websites exist worldwide, with over 95 percent of them leveraging the functionality of JavaScript. JavaScript has dramatically transformed the web browsing experience by allowing developers to create webpages with interactive components. This programming language enables users to make information dynamic and interactive and incorporate animated visuals and complex website features.

    JavaScript is fully supported by the most popular web browsers, such as Google Chrome and Apple Safari. Due to the many JavaScript frameworks available, this language is a popular choice for mobile and online application development. Furthermore, the JavaScript runtime environment, Node.js, is used to create web servers and backend infrastructures. As a result, JavaScript is a flexible language that has various applications.
  4. TypeScript

    In 2012, Microsoft released TypeScript, a superset of JavaScript that provides increased functionality with type-checking capabilities. With these advanced features, TypeScript enables developers to quickly validate and ensure that their programs are free from errors. This has allowed for a quicker development process and a higher level of confidence in the accuracy of the code.

    Over the past six years, TypeScript, a programming language that expands on the syntax of JavaScript, has experienced a significant increase in usage. According to the 2021 State of JS survey, 69 percent of respondents now use TypeScript, up from only 21 percent six years ago. This substantial growth indicates that TypeScript is becoming more popular among developers due to its compatibility with various code editors.
  5. PHP

    PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose, server-side scripting language used to build dynamic and interactive websites. With its versatile capabilities, developers can incorporate PHP into HTML, enabling them to create simple programs that can enhance the user experience.

    Despite requiring limited knowledge and experience in web development, PHP is one of the most straightforward languages to learn and use. Furthermore, it is compatible with all major operating systems, including MAC OS, Windows, and Linux.

    Based on the statistics provided by WS Techs, it is evident that 78.9 percent of all websites that use a known server-side programming language utilise PHP. This implies that 8 out of 10 websites on the Internet use PHP in some capacity.
  6. C++

    C++ is a modernized iteration of the C programming language, frequently employed by developers to


    Swift, a
    programming language created by Apple, is recognised for its speed, security, interactivity, and modernity. Recent statistics show that iOS holds a 57.65 percent market share for mobile operating systems in the United States, underscoring the fact that Swift is the most commonly used programming language for Apple devices.
  7. Kotlin

    Kotlin has gained increasing popularity among Android developers due to its straightforward and user-friendly nature when compared to Java. Its compatibility with Java also means that developers can continue working on existing projects without having to start from scratch, making Kotlin an appealing option for those looking to make efficient progress in their coding journey.

    Based on a recent report, Kotlin is among the top three programming languages that businesses plan to adopt by 2022. It is already in use by several major tech companies such as Google, Trello, Netflix, and Amazon. Furthermore, Uber and Pinterest are currently in the process of migrating their applications from Java to Kotlin.

Therefore, which programming language should you aim to learn in 2023?

By mastering the most in-demand programming languages, you can unlock a plethora of new opportunities for yourself, regardless of your current level of experience in software engineering. Whether you are an experienced developer looking to improve your employability or a beginner seeking to enter the software development industry, grasping the programming languages that are presently in high demand can provide a significant advantage in the job market.

To determine which programming languages to study, it is helpful to assess their rankings, ratings, and popularity by referring to the aforementioned indices. Please feel free to share in the comments which programming language you intend to learn by 2023.

Is it possible to work remotely as a programmer?

Indeed, it is entirely feasible to secure a well-paying, remote software engineering position with a reputable US-based firm. Due to the advancements in technology, numerous remote job openings are now available online and are highly coveted. Leveraging a platform like Works can assist you in locating one of these work-from-home employment opportunities.

Here at Works, our mission is to offer developers the opportunity to establish rewarding and fulfilling careers by pairing them with state-of-the-art projects that are pushing the boundaries of innovation. We aim to aid developers in locating positions that are aligned with their unique skills and aspirations, encompassing opportunities in React, Node, Python, Angular, Swift, React Native, Android, Java, Rails, Golang, DevOps, ML, and Data Engineering. With our support, developers can take their career to new heights.


  1. Which programming language is predicted to be in high demand by 2023?

    The most sought-after programming languages to study in 2022 are:
    1. Python
    2. JavaScript
    3. PHP
    4. C++
    5. TypeScript
    6. Java
    7. Swift
    8. Kotlin
  2. Is it worth studying Python in 2023?

    Python continues to be an essential programming language for developers to acquire in 2022. Not only is it user-friendly, but it is highly adaptable, enabling developers to showcase a plethora of coding abilities. As per Statista, an impressive 48.2 percent of developers worldwide already employ this language, making it an invaluable asset for any aspiring programmer.
  3. Which language should I choose to study in 2023 – Python or Java?

    Python is widely considered to be a superb language for novice programmers because of its simple syntax, user-friendly features, and intuitive language structure. On the other hand, Java is more suited for advanced learners since it is a highly structured language that demands a high level of technical proficiency even for constructing basic programs.
  4. Which programming language is the most lucrative?

    Python, Java, Golang, Ruby, C++, C#, SQL, and other programming languages are highly lucrative.
  5. Which programming language is considered the most challenging?

    Programming languages such as Malbolge, LISP, Haskell, and Prologue are known to be difficult.
  6. Should I study C++ in 2023?

    C++ is an object-oriented programming language that has proven to be indispensable in a wide range of applications. Its exceptional speed, efficiency, accuracy, and performance make it a crucial language to learn by 2023. Its versatility and strong feature set also make it an excellent choice for developers seeking to create efficient and dependable software.

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