One of the most popular web development frameworks, Angular has a variety of applications. These applications range from developing dynamic single-page applications to creating user interfaces for mobile and desktop applications. Common questions related to Angular that are typically asked during job interviews include inquiries about the framework’s capability to create rich user interfaces, the ability to optimize application performance, and the advantages and disadvantages of using Angular as a web development solution. When preparing for an interview, it is important to have a strong knowledge of the fundamentals of Angular and to be able to discuss prior work and projects that demonstrate a thorough understanding of the framework. It is also beneficial to be familiar with the latest trends in web development and to be able to explain how Angular can help to improve the user experience.
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It is estimated that over one billion individuals around the world utilize the internet and mobile applications for almost every aspect of their lives. This is due to the fact that users are able to enjoy a seamless experience while making use of these applications, which is why they are so popular.
Have you ever given thought to how developers manage to incorporate so much into mobile applications? It is largely due to the prevalence of well-known web frameworks. In fact, there are various web-based frameworks and tools available to simplify the process of constructing apps.
Use this framework’s specialised structure to create apps that are simple to maintain.
Square and obtuse design
When it comes to web development, Angular is a Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework. This framework enables an organised development process and the ability for two-way data binding within the Document Object Model (DOM). Below are the six components that are essential for creating an Angular application:
- Modules: To begin using an Angular app, you must first import the root module, which is named AppModule.
- Components: Each part of the app is responsible for defining a class that houses the app’s data and logic.
- Templates: The Angular markup is used in combination with HTML in the Angular template to pre-render modifications to HTML components.
- Metadata: Metadata is used in Angular to provide additional information about classes, which allows the framework to decide how to process them. By adding a layer of decoration on top of a class, it is possible to adjust its expected behavior to fit the specific requirements of the application.
- Services: Creating a service class is an essential part of software development when components need to share data or logic that is not related to the view. The service class and the @Injectible decorator are inseparable, and using the two together is essential for ensuring the successful transfer of data and logic.
- Interdependency injection: By utilizing this feature, developers can streamline their component classes without compromising their functionality. Rather than relying on traditional techniques for gathering information, dependency injection does not require polling remote servers, asking for user input, or logging directly to the terminal. Instead, these activities can be delegated to various services.
Questions and Answers for Common Angular Interviews
When referring to software, what exactly do we mean when we talk about “one page applications?”Single-page apps are a kind of web application that only requires one HTML page to function (SPAs).
By leveraging the features of Angular, users can be presented with dynamic data in the form of an HTML template. An example of this is String Interpolation, which enables developers to retrieve data from a module and integrate it into an HTML template.
How does one write an Angular Decorator?Decorators are functions that can be applied to various components of a class, such as a parameter, method, or property, by preceding their name with the @ symbol. These functions take in the context of the class, parameter, or method and return a modified or replaced version of the target. By utilizing decorators, developers can modify the code in a succinct and efficient manner.
Syntax: It’s a @() that takes arguments.
I was wondering what the purpose of [(ngModel)] was.The ngModel directive facilitates the binding of user input to a variable, the selection of text areas, and the storage of user information. Additionally, this directive is also commonly used for form validation purposes.
Can you list the fundamental components of an Angular app?Angular applications are composed of various fundamental components, including modules, components, property binding, templates, structural directives, dependency injection, services, and routing. These elements are essential to create a functioning application that is able to be easily updated and maintained. Modules provide the necessary structure to organise the code, while components are the building blocks of the app. Property binding enables communication between the component class and its template. Templates are used to provide the user interface, while structural directives provide a way to modify the DOM structure. Dependency injection is used to provide services to the components, and routing is used to define how the application will respond to user actions. All of these components are essential to the development of an Angular application.
What exactly is the definition of change detection?Angular has a technique for detecting changes. In the event that data changes, change detection is concerned with re-rendering the display.
In Angular, what exactly are pipes?Straight functions, also known as pipes, are used to modify an input value as specified by the programmer. By connecting multiple pipes together, a user can create a chain of functions. The ‘|’ symbol is used to denote a pipe.
To begin, let’s define Bootstrapping in Angular.The term “bootstrapping” refers to a technique used to launch Angular applications.
For every given Angular application, it is necessary to have one module, known as the root module, in order to “bootstrap” when the application is run for the first time. This root module is traditionally referred to as AppModule, and is usually represented by a class that has been decorated with the @NgModule decorator. This class is typically placed after the import statements.
When an object is created in TypeScript, what method is invoked?When a TypeScript object is created, it triggers the constructor function.
Describe the steps required to establish communication between Parent and Child components in Angular.The transfer of data between a Parent and a Child component in Angular is achieved through the use of the @Input decorator in the Child component. If there is a need to send information from the Child to the Parent, the @Output decorator can be employed in the Child component to facilitate this.
For those unfamiliar with Angular, what exactly is CLI?The Angular CLI (Command Line Interface) is a command shell tool for running, creating, scaffolding, and managing Angular applications.
A definition of SPA in Angular would be helpful.Single page applications (SPAs) are web applications that are accessed via the web browser and operate on a single HTML page. The page dynamically updates certain sections of the page in response to user input, without any page reloads or page switches. To ensure your site runs smoothly and loads quickly, it is important to follow the instructions provided.
What exactly is an Angular directive?Angular applications may gain advantages from the integration of directives, which are classes that provide additional functionalities to components. Forms, styles, lists, and the content presented to users can all be effectively managed through the utilization of Angular’s pre-built directives.
Exactly what does “Change Detection” mean? What is the procedure for detecting changes?When a model and a view have been synchronized and brought into a state of equilibrium, this is referred to as change detection. In the Angular framework, the information flow is always unidirectional, even when two-way binding is utilized with the ngModel, as this is merely a convenient representation of the underlying one-way flow.
The process for detecting changes is an unidirectional one, proceeding from the basis up to the conclusion. This unidirectional flow of information implies that no data is flowing in the reverse direction. An Angular application can be conceptualized as a tree composed of distinct modules, where each part has its own child, but there is no connection between the parent and the child. This one-way flow eliminates the necessity of a $digest loop.
What are the two methods used to track and identify shifts?Angular offers two different approaches to detecting changes: Default and OnPush.
If all parts use the default method, the whole tree is checked for changes.
When users take a proactive approach, they alert Angular of their intention to adhere to best practices for enhanced performance. This communication conveys to Angular that the user component solely relies on data supplied by the user, and any object sent to it should be treated as unchangeable.
What happens to the display if the data model is modified from outside the “Zone”?ApplicationRef.prototype.tick is used to monitor the whole component tree for changes.
By employing NgZone.prototype.run, it is possible to initiate change detection over the entire tree. The run method essentially calls the tick method in the background, passing the function to be executed as an argument.
Begin tracking modifications to the current component and its descendants using the ChangeDetectorRef.prototype.detectChanges function.
When using Angular, what exactly is lazy loading?It is commonplace for developers to incorporate a lazy module in order to break down large volumes of code. It has been determined that not all of the application’s code is loaded in the browser version. Consequently, it is absolutely crucial that the module makes use of lazy loading in order to fetch the code into the browser prior to the route transition.
The following is an example of a module that uses lazy loading:
Path: “example,” LoadChildren: “./example/example.module#ExampleModule,” Component: “PublicComponent”
To what end do the Core and Shared modules contribute?In order to ensure the program continues to operate effectively, it is common practice to keep frequently-used modules, components, directives, pipes, and other related objects in a single, shared module. This allows for a more efficient usage of these components, as they can be accessed from multiple modules without needing to be duplicated.
Core modules, on the other hand, are where developers save global singletons of services that are used across the whole application.
When trying to maximise an application’s performance in Angular 6, what factors should be taken into account?To improve the speed of an application built using Angular 6, use some of these strategies:
- Anxiety-inducing Tree Tremors
- Loading laziness
- Isolating devDependencies from dependencies
- The Complete A.O.T.
- The software was bundled together and made to seem worse.
- Using OnPush and TrackBy to avoid calculating template values
- The elimination of unnecessary import statements and third-party libraries.
How can I best ensure the safety of my Angular app?The following are some recommendations for protecting an Angular app:
- Be sure that your web app is the source of all inquiries and not some other website.
- Verification of the integrity of every data input
- Instead of working with DOM APIs, switch to Angular’s template system.
- Consistently follow content security policies
- Verify all information using code run on the server.
- If you’re compiling your templates, choose one that works offline.
- You shouldn’t link to any external websites in your application.
- Stay on top of all library and framework updates.
Tell me how unit testing differs from full system testing.During unit testing, small, individual pieces of code are examined to make sure they’re functioning as expected.
End-to-end testing is the process of verifying the functionality of an entire program or system from start to finish. This type of testing is done to ensure that the software is working correctly, and it involves replicating real user interactions with the program or system. By simulating user activities, end-to-end testing can provide the confidence that the software is free of errors and is performing as expected.
It is essential to explore the candidate’s thought process in depth and ask relevant follow-up questions to gain a better understanding of how they can potentially benefit your organization. To facilitate this, you may wish to consider incorporating pointed queries into your interview process.
Despite the fact that hundreds of applicants typically apply for a typical developer role, it is important that the interview questions presented to them have a range of difficulty levels to prevent the process from becoming tedious and repetitive.
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What are some common applications of Angular?Angular is a framework and platform for developing single-page client apps using HTML and TypeScript.
What are some common Angular questions asked during interviews?Some common Angular-related interview questions are as follows.
- To begin, let’s define “single page applications.” Please explain how they function in Angular.
- How would you describe the bare minimum syntax for an Angular Decorator?
- I was wondering what the purpose of [(ngModel)] was.
- Does anybody know the fundamentals of what makes up an Angular app?