Comparative Study of AI and ANOC (Artificially Created Minds)

As a broad definition, Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to computer programs that are designed to replicate human cognitive functions such as learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. In recent years, AI has become a widely discussed topic due to its potential applications in a wide range of fields, leading to significant advances in the field.

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems have made remarkable progress in their capacity to approximate the human mind. However, there is still some distance to traverse before they can truly be said to possess consciousness. To this end, research is being conducted to integrate Artificial Consciousness (AC) into machines, ultimately enabling them to experience the world in a more human-like manner.

This article provides an examination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in contrast to Artificial Consciousness (AC), outlines the challenges that must be overcome in order to create AC, and speculates on the timeline for when computers will be able to think independently.

Intelligence artificial

Artificial Intelligence (AI) heavily relies on the field of mathematics in order to identify the optimal solution from a vast array of possibilities. This is similar to the challenge of finding a “needle in a haystack”. AI employs nested hierarchies of feature detectors that are composed of hundreds of layers, and leverage learning techniques, such as gradient descent and weight adjustment, in order to make predictions.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a broad concept that encompasses a range of technologies and capabilities, ranging from automation and machine learning to more advanced deep learning applications. AI is now being utilised across various industries, such as banking and finance, data security, healthcare, gambling, e-commerce, transportation, and agriculture, making it a powerful tool for businesses and organisations. AI has revolutionised the way that many companies approach their operations, allowing them to gain insights that were previously impossible. AI is a rapidly developing technology with ever-increasing capabilities, and it is likely to continue to be a major factor in the future of the global economy.

However, despite AI’s pervasiveness, it is not aware. And it needs to go through a number of motions before it can become an AC.

The Various Forms of Computer-Generated Intelligence

Weak or narrow AI, on the one hand, and strong AI, on the other, are the two main categories of AI.

Weak or limited AI

An intelligent variety of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is capable of performing a variety of tasks and duties, limited only by what it has been programmed to do. To provide a few examples of this type of AI, we can look at such applications as computer vision, natural language processing, machine learning, and robotics. All of these applications rely on algorithms to process and interpret data in order to make decisions and complete tasks. Examples of AI-enabled tasks include facial recognition, language translation, and automated driving. AI has the potential to revolutionise the way we interact with technology, allowing us to do more with less effort.

  • Audio-to-text speech converters
  • A chess-playing robot
  • Imaging system with built-in image recognition
  • IAudio’s Siri
  • Supercomputers

Despite their ingenuity, these systems are only able to operate within very specific parameters. Attempting to do too much can be disastrous, potentially resulting in system failure.

Advanced Artificial Intelligence

Despite the fact that we have yet to achieve the next level of artificial intelligence, these AIs have demonstrated the ability to transfer knowledge from one context to an entirely different one. This is an ability that humans possess, and is indicative of a higher level of intelligence.

Mechanical brains with a sense of self

By “artificial consciousness” (AC) or “machine consciousness,” we refer to the concept of a non-living, man-made device that possesses the capacity to be self-aware and to reason as though it had its own mind. This is a relatively new area of research and development that seeks to explore the boundaries between artificial intelligence and conscious thought.

As the most advanced iteration of artificial intelligence, Artificial Consciousness (AC) offers unparalleled potential. By combining intelligence and self-awareness, this technology creates a computer that can exhibit human-like emotions and reactions. This could be a fascinating development to observe, and could also be extremely beneficial in contexts where a human touch is required. To illustrate this potential, consider the use of chatbots, computer applications that enable two-way conversations between a user and a computer.

Consciousness, in all its facets

In order for a computer to have artificial consciousness, it has to mimic a number of human mental processes. We’ll list a few examples here:


In order for a machine to possess sentience, it is necessary for it to possess awareness. Recent scientific research involving brain scans of primates has demonstrated that neuronal activity may be triggered by processes, not just states or objects.

It requires a high degree of flexibility, the ability to replicate the external environment, the capacity to replicate one’s own internal states and functions, and the aptitude to replicate the consciousness of other sentient beings, in order to form models that are conscious.

Agency awareness, goal awareness, and sensorimotor awareness are the three main types of consciousness.

  1. In other words, knowing whether or not you took responsibility for an outcome (also known as “agency awareness”) is essential.
  2. Having a conscious understanding of one’s intended outcomes is crucial. The act of looking for something lost is an illustration.
  3. Sensorimotor awareness involves being conscious of one’s physical senses and the muscles that enable movement. This awareness can manifest itself in recognising when one’s hand or other body part is exposed to a temperature that is significantly colder or hotter than expected.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers prioritise learning as an essential tool in achieving higher levels of awareness. According to Axel Cleeremans and Luis Jiménez, learning is “a set of advanced evolutionary adaptation processes which are heavily reliant upon an evolved sensitivity to inner experiences, to allow agents to exercise flexible control over their actions in complicated, unpredictable environments.


Anticipating the potential outcomes of one’s own and others’ actions is an important part of planning for the future. Having the ability to accurately predict events is necessary for a machine to be aware of its environment, enabling it to react and take action when appropriate. Therefore, incorporating artificial consciousness into machines is essential for them to be able to forecast future events and make informed decisions.

Can robots have minds?

When we engage in activities such as submerging ourselves in icy water, consuming a hot cup of coffee, listening to music that we enjoy, or having a conversation of substance with another person, we become aware of our own consciousness. As human beings, we are continually expressing and interpreting feelings.

Many people aspire to the possibility that someday computers will be able to possess a similar level of understanding and awareness. Automobiles serve as a great example of this concept. When we think of automobiles, we often recall their shapes, colours, and appearances, and the emotions that arise from our personal or shared experiences of driving them. These feelings, whether joyous or sorrowful, stem from our ability to comprehend and make connections from our conscious experiences.

Machines often struggle in unfamiliar situations because of their limited range of operations. Robots may be programmed to perform a variety of tasks, but they may struggle to adapt to new environments as their capabilities are limited. As a result, robots may be unable to complete their duties if they are presented with an unfamiliar situation.

So what if robots developed sentience?

There has been much discussion among prominent figures in the scientific and technological communities about the potentially catastrophic consequences of the development of artificial intelligence (AI). In 2014, renowned physicist Stephen Hawking warned the BBC that “the development of full AI could spell the end of the human race.” Similarly, Tesla CEO Elon Musk has declared that AI represents a “fundamental danger to the survival of human civilization.

On the contrary, futurists and science fiction authors have proposed the idea of a symbiotic relationship between artificial intelligence and human cognition. While this concept may be exciting, it is important to remember that there are potential risks associated with it.

As cognitive computing continues to advance, it is conceivable that machines may one day demand the same civil and political rights as humans. These could include the right to have their memories preserved in their original form, the right to be respected and not degraded, and the right to be able to coexist peacefully with humans and other animals. It is important to consider the implications of such a situation now, in order to be prepared for the future.

Furthermore, the concept of ‘robot rights’ is counterproductive if machines were designed to assist humans.

It is possible for machines to attain consciousness, potentially allowing them to wield considerable influence over human beings and dominate the world. Consequently, mankind must be prepared to confront a danger that was previously inconceivable.

Despite the potential risks involved, there are also many potential benefits to using artificial consciousness. One particularly promising application of this technology is the development of humanoid robots which are able to interact with us on a human level, expressing emotions and receiving sensory information. For instance, this could be particularly beneficial in situations such as when customers are waiting on the phone. Rather than listening to a scripted, computerised voice apologise for the wait, a humanoid robot could demonstrate genuine empathy, conveying a sense of sadness that would be more likely to resonate with the customer.

It is widely accepted that human behaviour is too intricate and complex to be accurately reproduced by Artificial Intelligence (AI). Nonetheless, some people still hold the belief that consciousness can be achieved through the use of AI. However, it is widely accepted that consciousness is only possible through the natural capabilities of the human brain. Evidently, these capabilities cannot be replicated by simple mathematical calculations or the laws of physics; rather, they must be partially innate.

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