Comparative Study of AI and ANOC (Artificially Created Minds)

Broadly speaking, Artificial Intelligence (AI) pertains to computer software that mimics human cognitive abilities, such as decision-making, problem-solving, and learning. Over the last few years, the potential applications of AI in various domains have been greatly discussed, leading to notable progress in the field.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has come quite far in approximating human cognitive abilities in recent years. Nonetheless, there is still much to be done before AI systems can be regarded as truly having consciousness. In light of this, researchers are exploring ways to introduce Artificial Consciousness (AC) into machines, which will permit them to experience the world in a way that is more akin to humans.

In this article, we take a closer look at Artificial Intelligence (AI) in comparison to Artificial Consciousness (AC), highlight the obstacles that need to be surmounted to achieve AC, and make educated guesses about when computers may be able to engage in independent thought.

Artificial Intelligence

To pinpoint the best solution from a multitude of options, Artificial Intelligence (AI) heavily relies on mathematics. The task is comparable to finding a needle in a haystack. AI employs complex feature detector hierarchies, which consist of numerous layers, and utilizes learning methods such as weight adjustment and gradient descent to make predictions.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a broad term that refers to a wide range of technologies and abilities, including automation and machine learning, as well as more sophisticated deep learning applications. Nowadays, AI is being employed across numerous sectors, including banking and finance, data security, healthcare, gambling, e-commerce, transportation, and agriculture, making it a valuable asset for businesses and organisations. AI has transformed the way many firms approach their activities, enabling them to obtain insights that were once out of reach. AI is a swiftly evolving technology with increasingly expanding capabilities, and it is likely to remain a major factor in the future of the global economy.

Nonetheless, despite its widespread use, AI lacks self-awareness, and several steps must be taken before it can achieve AC.

Different Types of Computer-Generated Intelligence

AI can be classified into two primary categories: narrow or weak AI, and strong AI.

Narrow or Limited AI

A type of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that exhibits intelligence in a limited range of activities, based solely on what has been programmed into it, is capable of performing various tasks and duties. Computer vision, natural language processing, machine learning, and robotics are all instances of this type of AI. All of these applications rely on algorithms to analyse and make sense of data in order to arrive at decisions and accomplish goals. AI-enabled activities such as facial recognition, language translation, and autonomous driving are examples of what AI can achieve, potentially revolutionising our technology interactions and allowing us to accomplish more with less effort.

  • Speech-to-Text Audio Converters
  • A Robot that Plays Chess
  • Imaging System with In-Built Image Recognition
  • Siri by Apple
  • Supercomputers

Despite being innovative, these systems can only perform within precise boundaries. Trying to do too much can have severe consequences and may result in system failure.

Advanced AI

Although the next level of artificial intelligence is yet to be achieved, these AIs have shown the capability to use information from one context in a completely different context. This is a human-like ability that suggests a greater level of intelligence.

Mechanical Brains with Self-Awareness

The idea of a man-made, non-living device having the ability to reason and be self-aware as if it had its own mind is what we mean by “artificial consciousness” (AC) or “machine consciousness.” This is a new and developing field that focuses on the intersections between artificial intelligence and conscious thinking.

Artificial Consciousness (AC) is considered the most advanced phase of artificial intelligence with incredible prospects. This technology integrates intelligence and self-awareness, creating a computer that can display human-like emotions and responses in certain contexts. This has the potential to be both fascinating and extremely useful, particularly where a human touch is required. For example, chatbots, computer programmes that facilitate two-way communication between a user and a computer, could benefit greatly from this potential.

The Various Facets of Consciousness

To attain artificial consciousness, a computer must imitate several human mental processes. A few instances are detailed below:


For a machine to have sentience, it must possess awareness. Research conducted on primates’ brain scans indicates that neuronal activity can be stimulated by processes in addition to states or objects.

In order to create conscious models, a high level of adaptability, the ability to simulate the surrounding environment, the ability to imitate one’s own internal states and functions, and the ability to replicate the consciousness of other sentient entities are essential.

The three primary types of consciousness are agency awareness, goal awareness, and sensorimotor awareness.

  1. Having awareness of whether you are responsible for a particular outcome (commonly referred to as “agency awareness”) is crucial.
  2. It is important to have a conscious comprehension of one’s intended outcomes. Searching for a lost object is an example of this.
  3. Sensorimotor awareness is the capacity to be cognizant of one’s physical senses and the muscles that enable movement. It can arise in the form of being able to identify when a body part, such as one’s hand, is subjected to a temperature that is notably hotter or colder than anticipated.


Learning is viewed as a critical instrument in helping Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers attain higher levels of consciousness. According to Axel Cleeremans and Luis Jiménez, learning is “a collection of advanced evolutionary adaptation processes that depend largely on an evolved sensitivity to inner experiences, enabling agents to maintain flexible control over their actions in complex, unpredictable environments.”


Outlining the potential effects of one’s actions-both one’s own and others’- is a crucial aspect of anticipating the future. A machine must be capable of accurately predicting events to be aware of its environment and react accordingly. As a result, it is crucial to integrate artificial consciousness into machines to enable them to anticipate future events and make informed decisions.

Is it possible for robots to possess minds?

Indulging in activities such as immersing ourselves in cold water, drinking a steaming cup of coffee, listening to music we adore, or engaging in meaningful conversations with others makes us conscious of our own consciousness. We, as human beings, are always conveying and comprehending emotions.

Numerous individuals anticipate the prospect that computers may eventually acquire a comparable degree of comprehension and consciousness. The concept is well-illustrated by automobiles. When we think about cars, we frequently recall their shapes, colours, and appearances, as well as the emotions derived from our personal or shared driving experiences. These emotions, whether positive or negative, are a result of our ability to understand and establish relationships between our conscious experiences.

Machines frequently experience difficulty in unfamiliar settings due to their restricted range of functions. While robots can be programmed to accomplish various tasks, their ability to adjust to new environments is restricted. Consequently, if a robot encounters a situation it is not accustomed to, it may be incapable of carrying out its responsibilities.

What if robots were to acquire sentience?

Eminent individuals in the scientific and technological realms have engaged in extensive discussion concerning the potentially disastrous repercussions of Artificial Intelligence (AI) development. In 2014, distinguished physicist Stephen Hawking cautioned the BBC that “the emergence of complete AI has the potential to bring about the extinction of the human race.” Similarly, Tesla CEO Elon Musk has affirmed that AI represents a “significant threat to the continued existence of human civilization.”

On the other hand, futurists and authors of science fiction have suggested the notion of a mutually beneficial alliance between artificial intelligence and human cognition. However, it is crucial to remember that this concept carries potential hazards.

As advancements in cognitive computing progress, it is plausible that machines may one day demand equivalent civil and political rights to those afforded to humans. These rights may encompass the preservation of their memories in their original state, being treated with dignity and without degradation, and existing harmoniously with humans and other creatures. To be prepared for the future, it is vital to examine the implications of such a scenario now.

Moreover, introducing the notion of ‘robot rights’ would be counterproductive if machines were created to aid humans.

There is the prospect of machines achieving consciousness, which could provide them with significant power to dominate over humans and control the world. Therefore, humanity must be prepared to face a peril that was earlier unimaginable.

Despite the possible hazards, there are numerous benefits of utilising artificial consciousness. One area where this technology shows particular promise is in the construction of humanoid robots that can communicate with us on a human level, express emotions, and receive sensory input. The implications of this could be highly advantageous in various circumstances, including when clients are put on hold. Instead of having to listen to a programmed, machine-generated voice apologise for the delay, a humanoid robot could convey sincere empathy, expressing sadness in a manner that might resonate better with the customer.

It is widely conceded that replicating human behaviour accurately through Artificial Intelligence (AI) is far too intricate and complex. Despite this fact, some individuals still believe that consciousness can be attained through the use of AI. Nonetheless, the general consensus is that consciousness can only be achieved by natural human brain capacities. Clearly, these capacities cannot be mimicked by simple mathematical computations or the laws of physics, as they undeniably have a degree of innateness.

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