Contrasting Black Box and White Box Testing

It’s crucial to comprehend the difference between black box and white box testing. What are the prevalent techniques employed for black box testing? Is there a source to learn about white box testing procedures? How to conduct black box testing? What’s the number of white box testing categories?

We’ll tackle these questions individually.

What exactly is involved in black box testing?

During black box testing, the testing team doesn’t hold any information or access to the application’s underlying structure or design. This test is executed by juxtaposing the input and output values.

After completing a software programme or product, it moves to the “black box testing” phase, which concentrates on the end user’s viewpoint.

What is the process for conducting black box testing?

The black box testing procedures consist of…

  1. Examine the system’s requirements and features.
  2. Create a test case that ensures the system reacts suitably to user input.
  3. Formulate a worst-case scenario to assess whether your system can identify any flaws.
  4. Determine results derived from inputs.
  5. Formulate test scenarios and execute them.
  6. Evaluate the outcomes in the context of the methods employed.
  7. Confirm the accurate results and resolve any persistent issues.

Elucidate the concept of white box testing.

White box testing is a process that involves testing the internal structure of a program to obtain insights into its workings. During this process, the team verifies the input/output cycle.

The objective of white box testing is to enhance the functionality of a program by identifying and rectifying bugs that would otherwise be invisible.

What is the process for conducting white box testing?

The white box testing process includes….

  1. Naming a testable feature, component, or system as a whole
  2. Developing a flowchart that includes all probable scenarios
  3. Integrating a user’s experience, specific use cases, and technical details into a unified diagram
  4. Generating a group of test cases that simulate all likely results of the flowchart.
  5. Validation of hypotheses and testing to check their accuracy

Differentiating Black Box and White Box Testing

Key Differences between Black Box and White Box Testing

I was curious, what are some common techniques for black box testing?

Certain examples of black box testing techniques are…

  1. Equivalence Partitioning

    Dissecting Equivalences involves categorizing legitimate and illegitimate values into distinct partitions that exhibit similar behavior. A precise mapping between the conditions in the two partitions is necessary so that if a condition in one partition is false, the condition in the other partition should be false as well.

    For instance, a software function developed to verify an OTP must be able to approve any six-digit partition. If a user enters a number that is not six digits long, the function should redirect them to an error page.

  2. Error Guessing

    Correcting errors by guessing is another prevalent method utilized for black box testing. This technique employs predefined test queries to identify code with established flaws. There is no set approach to error guessing, and testers must rely on their experience and use sample software to determine how to proceed.

    Here are some examples of queries that are typically asked to anticipate an error:

    The infamous “null pointer exception”
    Incorrect parameters entered
    Integer division
    Testing maximum file upload for file size
    Selecting radio buttons but not typing in numbers
    Empty form fields

  3. Boundary Value Analysis

    Calculating values at boundaries or Boundary Value Analysis is a crucial technique utilized in Black Box Testing to validate the precision of boundary values. By inputting these values, testers can ensure accurate results are produced by the program.
  4. State Transition Testing

    Examining the effects of state transitions involves using inputs to validate the anticipated outcome. State transition testing seeks to verify if any changes occur as the system moves from one state to another.

    To identify the reason for failure while transitioning from one state to another and determine the desired results, the tester must analyze the transition data and generate suitable test scenarios.

  5. Decision Table Testing

    Simulation of a Decision Table involves testing the program to evaluate its performance when presented with a variety of different inputs. This testing method allows for the consideration of all potential inputs to determine the expected outcome.

    Decision Table Testing is a popular black box testing approach.

I am curious, what are some common white box testing techniques?

Most white box testing procedures involve…

  1. Statement Coverage Verification

    Verifying Statement Coverage is a method of code coverage testing that counts the number of statements present in an application’s codebase. All statements in the code are executed at least once, providing an extra benefit. Statement Coverage is a white box testing technique that may help find redundant statements and eliminate dead code.

    To calculate statement coverage, use the following equation:

    Statements used / Total Statements

  2. Branch Coverage Verification

    Verifying Coverage in a Branch is a form of white box testing that involves identifying all possible execution paths, including both conditional and unconditional paths. Additionally, the tester must thoroughly examine the unit tests and conditional logic of each branch. If the system only carries out actions A, B, and C when a specific condition is satisfied, these will be categorized as conditional branches. However, action D may be an unconditional branch that is executed after action A is completed.

    To calculate branch coverage, use the following equation:

    Branches used / Total Branches

  3. Path Coverage Analysis

    Path coverage testing is a systematic process that allows testers to thoroughly examine each line of code. By employing cyclomatic complexity and unit tests, this type of testing enables developers to focus on the logic of their programs and verify critical sections of code.

    Here is an example of some code:

    If a > b
    + do something
    nothing to do

    To test the code, the first step is to create a flowchart by breaking down the individual steps into separate statements. Following that, set up various potential outcomes. Finally, a unit test and a cyclomatic complexity calculation should be conducted to confirm the accuracy of the code.

    In this scenario, the cyclomatic complexity is 2, as a minimum of two test cases is needed to cover all possible code execution paths.

    Related Articles: 4 Main Differences Between Unit Testing and Integration Testing


White box testing evaluates the internal structure of the program, while black box testing examines its external behavior. Both methods are essential for testers in different stages of the development process.

To choose the most appropriate testing approach for their software and applications, businesses should have a thorough understanding of the distinctions between black box and white box testing.

Are you in need of programmers who can perform both black-box and white-box testing?

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Firstly, how many different types of white box testing exist?

There are several types of white box testing, including…

White box penetration testing involves an ethical hacker attempting to gain unauthorized access to a system by exploiting known vulnerabilities in the application’s code and architecture. Unit testing involves examining each individual piece of code to ensure that it functions as intended. Code robustness can be tested through mutation testing by deliberately making small changes to the code structure. Integration testing is done to ensure that internal software and external systems work seamlessly together. Analyzing static code is a technique that utilizes machine learning and predetermined patterns to identify bugs.

What are the ways in which black box testing can be categorized into subtypes?

Some examples of black box testing are…

Functional testing involves verifying that a product complies with its functional requirements and standards. Non-functional testing, on the other hand, is focused on the system’s overall performance. Regression testing is performed to confirm if the behavior of a system has been altered as a result of code updates or changes.

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