Data Science and Hadoop: A Practical Guide

Apache Hadoop is an open-source framework designed to address the challenges associated with working with large datasets and distributed computing resources. It is a highly flexible software system that can be scaled from a single server to a network of up to ten thousand computers. Hadoop provides an efficient and cost-effective solution to organisations that need to process, analyse, and store large amounts of data.

Hadoop is written in Java, but other languages such as Python, C++, Ruby, Perl, etc. may be used alongside it in data science.

Ancestry of Hadoop

Hadoop was initially created as an open-source project by Yahoo in 2008. Since then, it has grown into a vibrant community of professional software developers and contributors, now managed by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF), a non-profit organisation. The ASF’s management of the project ensures that Hadoop remains an open-source platform, available to anyone who wishes to use it.

Nutch, the open-source search engine developed by Doug Cutting and Mike Cafarella, was created with the intention of accelerating online search results through the application of distributed data processing and multitasking. By harnessing the power of several computers, they sought to make multitasking a reality, thus opening up the potential for enhanced search capabilities. Hadoop is based on the work of Cutting and Cafarella in developing Nutch.

In what ways may Hadoop be used for data science?

Big data scalability

As the amount and diversity of data that requires safe storage, maintenance, analysis, and interpretation continues to increase, database technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in both online services and more traditional industries such as banking, transportation, and finance. Data science is the field of study devoted to the task of examining this data and determining meaningful insights from it.

Hadoop’s ecosystem is renowned for its dependability and scalability in comparison to other solutions, making it a viable choice for businesses who are dealing with vast amounts of data. As the amount of data being stored continues to grow exponentially, traditional database management systems are struggling to keep up with the sheer volume of information that is being processed.

Hadoop offers a highly scalable and fault-tolerant solution, which allows for the storage of vast amounts of data while still ensuring the data remains of high quality. Furthermore, it is designed such that it can easily be expanded vertically or horizontally, providing users with great flexibility.

The capacity to expand upwards

In order to improve the performance and longevity of a Hadoop system, it may be necessary to scale vertically by incorporating additional resources, such as CPUs, into a single node. This vertical scaling approach enables the system to leverage the added hardware capabilities, such as increased processing power and expanded memory, to boost overall system performance.

Scalability across the board

When a distributed software system increases its capacity by adding additional nodes or systems, this process is known as horizontal scaling. Unlike vertical scaling, which can lead to an overload of the system, horizontal scaling ensures that the system is always running at full capacity, as no time is wasted due to idle processing. Additionally, horizontal scaling allows for multiple computers to be connected and run in parallel, making it a more efficient way of increasing capacity.

Power to compute

Hadoop is a distributed computing platform that is capable of filtering and processing large amounts of data due to its distributed compute capabilities. Its processing efficiency is further improved when multiple nodes are employed, allowing for a greater amount of data to be analysed in a shorter amount of time.

Tolerance for failure

By default, Hadoop creates multiple replicas of every database, a measure designed to ensure that, in the event of a node failure, the job can be distributed to other nodes in the network. Furthermore, distributed computing also benefits from this safeguard.


Hadoop is capable of ingesting data without any pre-processing requirements from the user. It is equipped to sort various types of information, including unstructured information such as text, images and videos, and determine the next appropriate steps to take with the data.

Diminished Expenditures

Information is stored on the cloud, a network of servers and storage devices that are available to anyone at a cost-effective price. One of the advantages of cloud computing is that it is based on open source technology, meaning that it is free to use and access.

Business Use Cases for Hadoop

  • eBay uses Hadoop to get value from data for better search results indexing.
  • Facebook uses Hadoop to store duplicates of internal logs and dimension data sources for use in reporting, analytics, and machine learning.
  • LinkedIn’s Hadoop is the backend for the “People You May Know” function.
  • Opowerutilises Hadoop to aid clients by recommending services, providing discounts, and reducing energy use.
  • Orbitz maximises a hotel’s position in search results by analysing guests’ browsing activities using Hadoop.
  • Hadoop may be used to gather, report, and analyse data, much as it can be used to play Spotify‘s music.
  • Twitter’s Hadoop is used to store and interpret data like tweets and log files.

Hadoop is an invaluable tool for data scientists.

Hadoop’s major function is to store big data, which is a heterogeneous collection of different kinds of information, both organised and unstructured.

Data scientists who are looking to manage and analyse large datasets can benefit greatly from the use of Hadoop. Hadoop is a powerful tool that allows scientists to keep track of vast amounts of data with minimal effort. Additionally, having proficiency in Hadoop could potentially give data scientists a competitive edge when it comes to advancing their career.

Here are a few more uses:

Prompt investigation of data

Studies suggest that data preparation consumes approximately 80% of a data scientist’s time and effort. Hadoop offers powerful data exploration capabilities, which may assist data scientists in detecting subtleties within the data that they might not have noticed without such assistance.

Hadoop is not only a data storage tool; it also excels at handling large amounts of data with little to no analysis.

Removal of unnecessary information

When constructing a machine learning model or a classifier, data scientists typically do not use whole datasets except in very rare instances. Instead, they must often philtre the data to satisfy the requirements of marketing and research.

Data scientists often have a need to examine data records in their entirety in order to identify and analyse meaningful patterns. This process of data filtering can also help them identify any inaccuracies or incompleteness in the data. Additionally, having a good understanding of Hadoop can enhance their ability to quickly philtre data and tackle any domain-specific problems.

The Practice of Taking Part in a Data Set

It is impossible to construct a model using only the initial thousand records in a database due to the fact that records of the same type are usually stored together and the information follows a prescribed structure. Therefore, data scientists must gain an extensive comprehension of the character of the data. Sampling is a beneficial approach that makes this process much more efficient, and the user-friendly Hadoop user interface increases the speed of the sampling procedure.

Researchers may gain insights into the most effective techniques for data analysis and modelling by taking a sample of the data. Utilising Hadoop Pig’s ‘Sample’ feature is an excellent way of limiting the amount of data that needs to be collected.

The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is a key component of the Hadoop architecture that enables the storage of data in Hadoop clusters and provides high-speed data access. It is designed with NameNode and DataNode, which allows for the secure use of big data analytics programs on large data volumes. HDFS also provides a safe and secure environment for storing data.

Description of Hadoop’s Components

It is evident that the majority of data (eighty to ninety percent) is in an unstructured form and is continuing to grow. Hadoop is instrumental in helping to place big data jobs in the suitable systems and restructures how data is managed. Its systematic design further allows businesses to manage and analyse large amounts of data efficiently, while being both flexible and cost-effective.

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