Before delving into its role in automated testing, it is crucial to grasp the fundamentals of Selenium. Selenium is comprised of Sulphur, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Selenium atoms. One of its key benefits is its quick test creation and execution abilities, combined with its interoperability across various browsers. Nonetheless, there are some limitations that come with employing Selenium, such as the absence of mobile testing compatibility. It is also essential to familiarise oneself with typical Selenium-related interview questions.
For a deeper understanding of these concerns, we recommend reading this blog post.
Frequently asked questions in beginner-level Selenium interviews
What exactly is Selenium?
Selenium is an open-source and free framework used to test web applications on various browsers. It integrates several technologies into a single framework.
What does Selenium consist of?
The four constituents of Selenium are…
Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free, open-source automation tool that allows users to record their progress and playback, as well as inspecting it later.
Introduction to Selenium RC
Selenium RC offers APIs in several programming languages for writing test scripts that are browser-specific and can be remotely controlled.
Selenium Web Driver
In its native environment, Selenium Web Driver interacts with the browser, issuing commands for immediate processing.
Selenium Grid is a tool that permits tests to be run simultaneously on multiple browsers via a central server, saving time and enabling large-scale testing.
What other components, besides Selenium, can be found within it?
Selenium includes multiple components, for example…
Some examples of components in Selenium are:
- Link Text
- Partial Link Text
How does Selenium enable diverse testing approaches?
Selenium allows for both functional and regression testing.
Functional testing ensures that all features and components in an application are thoroughly examined, while regression testing verifies previously tested use cases to ensure that they continue to perform as expected.
What is Selenese?
Selenese is a set of commands in Selenium that can be utilized for automating UI testing.
The program responds to actions, which are direct interactions with it.
Variables can be created and values can be saved by utilizing accessors.
By observing the current operation of the application and comparing it to the expected results, assertions can be made.
Selenese can be used to test a wide variety of things, such as Ajax, notifications, list options, and broken links.
What are the various types of web locators in Selenium?
Locators assist Selenium IDE in finding the elements that need to be modified by defining the operation’s scope.
Selenium includes a variety of web locators, such as:
Identification-Based Locating System
Search Engine that Follows Links
Discovery Tool Using Incidental Links
Identifier by Title
Identifier that looks for a certain label
Identifying a Class-Named Resource
The XPath Locator
CSS Selector Finder
Refer to the following link for more information: List of the Best 21 Interview Questions for Node JS Developers in 2023
What are the different types of navigation commands that can be used in Selenium?
Selenium provides a range of navigation commands, including:
Driver.navigate().refresh() – Loads a new version of the current page.
Driver.navigate().forward() – Navigates forward in the browser.
Driver.navigate().back() – Navigates back to the previous page in the browser.
Interview Questions for Intermediate-Level Candidates in the Selenium Industry
Can you provide a definition of XPath for those who may be unfamiliar with it?
XPath is a tool that can be used to locate specific elements on a web page by examining the structure of the document’s XML or HTML.
What is the difference between using a single slash and a double slash in XPath?
A single slash in XPath, when used in the Selenium framework, creates an absolute path extension that begins selection from the document mode.
On the other hand, a double slash in XPath is used to establish relative path extensions that may initiate selection at any point in the document.
In Selenium, which command is superior, assert or verify?
In the Selenium framework, the ‘assert’ command allows users to verify the presence of a particular element on a web page. If the specified element does not appear, the validation process is terminated.
The ‘Verify’ command in Selenium not only checks for a specified element on a web page but also continues to search for the element on additional pages if it does not initially appear.
What advantages does JUnit offer to Selenium?
JUnit is a Java-based open-source framework used for unit testing. Annotations in JUnit provide metadata about the associated method. When combined with Selenium, JUnit annotations can enhance the organization and management of test cases.
By incorporating JUnit annotations in the test script, Selenium WebDriver tests can be separated into pre-execution and post-execution phases.
What is the number of different types of JUnit annotations that Selenium supports?
and @Parameters are the various JUnit annotations supported by Selenium.
What are the different wait commands available when working with Selenium?
In the Selenium automated testing process, wait commands are necessary before moving on to the next step. There are four types of wait commands supported by Selenium, which are:
Implicit Wait: This feature sets a timer that continuously runs while waiting for the ‘no such element’ exception to be thrown.
Explicit Wait: To avoid the ‘Element not visible’ issue, the Selenium Web Driver can be instructed to wait until a specific condition is met using this command.
Fluent Wait: The Fluent Wait command specifies the duration for which the Web Driver should wait before throwing an ‘Element Not Visible’ error, and how often it should check the specified criteria.
WebDriverWait: Applicable to real-time testing, the WebDriverWait command repeatedly polls to determine whether the specified condition has been met, and proceeds to execute the subsequent action indicated in the script.
Interview Questions for Selenium Experienced Developers
Which drivers would you recommend when performing mobile device testing in Selenium?
There are four mobile testing drivers offered in Selenium that interact with WebDriver. In the following order, they are:
AndroidDriver, which facilitates the testing of apps on both actual devices and simulators.
IPhoneDriver, used for app testing on iOS devices as its name suggests.
RemoteWebDriver, an option to test web applications on various mobile browsers.
Selendroid, which enables Android app testing on actual devices or simulators.
How can Ajax calls be dealt with in Selenium WebDriver?
Ajax has asynchronous capabilities, allowing users to continue using the program while waiting for a response. The process involves the client sending HTTP requests to the server, which responds without fully loading the page.
The primary challenge when using AJAX calls with Selenium WebDriver is determining the server response time, as it is not provided during an AJAX request. Therefore, the main issue is related to page load time.
Instead of utilizing automated testing with Selenium, it is recommended to use a wait approach to manage the potential variation in page load time, which could range from a few milliseconds to several seconds.
With regard to handling Ajax requests, Selenium provides various wait mechanisms, such as Implicit Wait, Explicit Wait, Fluent Wait and WebDriverWait.
How important is session handling in Selenium?
When conducting load testing, session management is critical as it enables the monitoring of server responses and the maintenance of the application state. If sessions are not supported by the browser, a different script request may be made during the test.
To manage sessions in Selenium, both TestNG and Selenium WebDriver can be used. TestNG’s framework incorporates execution, parallelization and thread count components. To limit the number of new sessions created during testing, it is important to activate thread count by configuring the parallel attribute value for the function.
What is the significance of the “required capability” for Selenium?
Can you provide information regarding Selenium’s breakpoints and where to initiate testing?
Can you explain the creation of an “object repository” in Selenium?
In reference to the internet, an “object repository” is a database that stores information regarding web elements such as their identifiers and values. Consultation of the object repository may be necessary to locate values for any component in the script. Instead of hardcoding them into the program, values for locators are kept in one accessible location.
When working with Selenium, it is critical to use key-value pairs to store objects. The key is used to locate the object on the page, and the value provides it with a distinct identifier.
The “desired capability” is a set of key-value pairs that includes browser attribute information such as browser name, version, browser driver path, and other details.
Selenium WebDriver’s driver instance can be customized according to the user’s needs, allowing test cases to be executed on browsers and operating systems that would otherwise not be compatible with the Selenium framework.
To analyze the code’s structure and functionality, breakpoints may be used. By placing breakpoints in the code, debugging can be performed iteratively to verify it.
To begin the testing process, a starting point can be determined by setting a point of origin. A test script can be initiated at any point in the code or at any breakpoint.
Selenium is a widely used testing framework that provides access to various testing tools. It is recommended that prior to a Selenium job interview, one reviews the relevant material to improve chances of success.
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What advantages does Selenium bring to the table for automated testing?
Using Selenium for automated testing provides several benefits including…
Benefits of using Selenium for automated testing include:
- Parallelism in execution
- Integration of recurring text cases
- Ability to run tests on large test matrices
- Greater precision
- Reduced expenses
Does Selenium have any limitations or downsides?
- As a result, Selenium lacks support from vendors.
- Reports can be generated in Selenium through the use of external programs such as TestNG and JUnit.
- Testing mobile applications with Selenium is inadequate.
- Selenium does not support the testing of barcode and captcha readers.