How to Use Natural Language Processing in Python to Create an Intelligent Chatbot

When it comes to crafting intelligent chatbots, most developers consider Python to be the go-to language due to its scalability, versatility, and “glue language” capabilities. This post delves into natural language processing (NLP) and details several essential NLP tools, with a focus on developing a smart chatbot using Python.

Define the concept of a chatbot.

In essence, a chatbot is an AI-powered program specifically developed to mimic human conversation and interpret dialogues. It allows people to interact with electronic gadgets and machines in a way that closely resembles human communication. Beyond this, chatbots can perform various tasks, including providing answers to basic questions and generating forecasts based on user information.

What makes chatbots highly valuable when juxtaposed with human interaction?

The growing popularity of chatbots among businesses can be largely attributed to their affordable production costs. Chatbots have demonstrated their immense usefulness in customer service, as evidenced by their remarkable effectiveness in reducing labour expenses.

Chatbots hold the promise of improving business operations substantially. They have the ability to serve multiple customers at the same time and remain available 24/7, thereby enhancing productivity. Additionally, chatbots can offer each customer a highly customised experience, empowering businesses to establish deep connections with their clientele.

Increasingly, businesses are leveraging chatbots as a means of engaging with their target audience using widely adopted messaging platforms such as WhatsApp and Telegram. By doing so, companies are in a better position to furnish their customers with vital updates and information, efficiently and affordably. Learn more about how chatbots facilitate digital transformation post-COVID.

Different Types of Chatbots

Below are some chatbot examples:

Artificial intelligence chatbots designed with natural language processing capabilities

For successful communication, chatbots must be equipped with a pre-determined skillset. Ensuring that chatbot users pose questions using the same language employed in creating the chatbot is key to enable the system to comprehend and provide accurate responses.

Syntax-Intelligent Chatbots

Developing these chatbots requires extensive competence in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP), an Artificial Intelligence (AI) field. By undertaking text analysis and ranking relevance, Syntax-Intelligent Chatbots can generate accurate responses to user inputs. You can refer to this resource on some recent developments in outsourced chatbot software development.

Customer Service Virtual Assistants

Service providers, including airlines and restaurant reservation apps, extensively employ Action-Oriented Chatbots to present tailored questions to customers and undertake appropriate actions. Due to their capacity to simplify customer experiences and minimize manual labour, these chatbots are surging in popularity in the customer service sector.

Natural-Conversing Chatbots

Chatbots demonstrate remarkable strides in technological advancement, as they react to written and spoken commands, providing users with an incredibly adaptable experience. Apple’s virtual assistant, Siri, is a leading example, allowing users to make phone calls, launch apps, and search the web. This showcases how chatbots have the potential to streamline life and improve efficiency.

Challenges in Chatbot Development

Notwithstanding chatbots’ soaring popularity, creating Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots is still fraught with several obstacles, including but not limited to:

  • Misspellings
  • Synonyms
  • Essential element reduction of terminologies
  • Punctuations
  • Homophones
  • Sarcasm
  • Idioms

Overcoming these challenges can refine chatbots’ precision and bolster their ability to converse more organically.

Natural Language Processing Chatbots

To create chatbots that can replicate human conversation, developers have increasingly employed the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP). As we have previously highlighted, NLP can help tackle challenges associated with natural language. NLP dissects conversations into sentences and subsequently segments those sentences into tokens (words) to help the bots comprehend what is being said.

Numerous applications of NLP include but are not limited to:

Public Opinion Analysis

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) can discern various emotions such as sadness, happiness, and indifference. Enterprises can leverage this technique to better comprehend their customers’ sentiment towards their services, thereby improving their customer experience. By empathising with their customers, businesses can deliver more personalised service that exceeds their customers’ expectations.

Spoken Language Recognition Algorithm

This technology, also called speech-to-text recognition, helps computers interpret spoken words into text. A commonly found application of this technology is on smartphones through the voice assistant feature, which enables users to execute tasks like online searching and making phone calls with ease and minimal effort.

Summary of Source Material

To analyse and compress significant textual data, Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods are commonly utilised to effectively process voluminous amounts of text. Document summaries can derive the most relevant and vital information.

Conversion through Machine Usage

By rapidly translating both text and audio from one language to another, Natural Language Processing (NLP) serves as a valuable tool. It greatly expedites the scanning of substantial volumes of data, be it basic text or more complex data, and assists in cost reduction for translations.

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an influential tool with a diverse range of applications. For instance, it can enhance the accuracy of Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs) by matching user queries with related website content. NLP is also beneficial in other scenarios, including text summarisation, machine translation, question answering, and text classification. To learn more about improving your online store for the year 2023, check out this link and for Javascript interview questions and answers, check out this link.

Popular NLP Software

Below are some commonly used NLP implementation tools:

Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK)

The Natural Language Processing (NLP) library is a free resource widely used by developers. It provides various libraries that assist in operations such as stemming, lemmatization, tokenization, and stop word removal.


SpaCy is widely recognised as one of the most comprehensive libraries for Natural Language Processing (NLP). Powered by the Cython programming language, SpaCy supports a variety of operations such as tokenization, stemming, stop word removal, and document similarity detection. If you are looking to hire remote C++ developers for your next project, check out this link.

Transformative Statements

Hugging Face has introduced an inventive solution for Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks like document similarity detection. With an Application Programming Interface (API), pre-trained models can be promptly deployed, requiring minimal effort from engineers. This improves efficiency while reducing the time, energy, and computing costs needed to train models from scratch, resulting in a lower carbon footprint. To learn more about the ease of AI application, check out this link.

Building a Conversational AI using Python

The steps below outline how to build a chatbot powered by Artificial Intelligence (AI).

Get the Reference Materials

To begin, import some essential libraries, including:

  • Pandas:

    Used for building a data frame.
  • NumPy:

    A Python module collection for handling arrays and matrices.
  • JSON:

    Use this module to access and modify data in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format.
  • TensorFlow:

    Required to build forecasting models.

Create a JSON Document for Intents

Building a comprehensive database of words and their corresponding classifications is crucial for constructing an effective chatbot. To respond to user inquiries, the chatbot will use this database. When a user submits a question, the chatbot will compare each query word to those in the dictionary to determine the user’s intention. The chatbot will then generate a JSON document to respond with a suitable answer.

Collecting Information Prior to Processing

Preprocessing is an essential stage that happens before data is moved to the model training phase. There are several stages involved:

  • Stemming:

    Removing letters from a word without taking into account inflections may result in some invalid forms. As a result, this technique should be used with care.
  • Lemmatization:

    Lemmatization is a method that resembles stemming since it reduces words to their simplest form. However, rather than stemming, it generates a proper noun known as a lemma. “Moving” and “movement” are examples of this, both derived from the base “move.” This technique improves predictions made by computers since it makes words easier to understand.
  • Eliminating Filler Words:

    Stop words, which include articles, prepositions, pronouns, and conjunctions, usually do not provide deeper insight into text. Thus, they are frequently removed to accommodate more relevant information.
  • Tokenization:

    Tokenization entails dividing a phrase into its individual parts, typically words, to aid machine interpretation. This technique breaks the phrase into smaller and more manageable units, enhancing the machine’s ability to comprehend the phrase with greater precision.

Create a Neural Network Model

Tokenized words, separated from their initial context, are not appropriate for direct machine learning. To keep track of tokens, it is necessary to convert them into numerical representations. Bag of Words (BoW) and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) are two popular methods used to accomplish this. BoW and TF-IDF translate tokenized words into vector format, facilitating their utilisation in machine learning.


Tokenization is the first step in the encoding procedure, which involves dividing the phrase into individual words. Next, a token is assigned to each concept to create a vocabulary. A sparse matrix is then created, with each row representing a phrase and the number of columns equal to the size of the vocabulary.


Repetition is highly emphasised in this approach. TF-IDF (Term Frequency–Inverse Document Frequency) places much less weight on articles, prepositions, and conjunctions than Bag-of-Words (BoW), which is a significant benefit of TF-IDF. It has two distinct stages: Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (IDF).


The neural network model used in this embedding technique goes through each word in a phrase, attempting to predict its neighbour. As a result, words with similar meanings to the input word are generated as output.

Continuous Bag of Words (CBoW)

This technique is similar to skip-gram, but instead of using a predefined dictionary to predict the following word, a neural network model is utilised.

It’s not surprising that BoW is a widely used technique for word embedding in sentences. Nevertheless, different datasets may require distinct methods.

After transforming the training data into an appropriate vector format, the model can be trained. To do so, a neural network must be created that takes the vectors generated from the training data and the query vector provided by the user as inputs. By comparing the query vector to each of the other vectors, it is feasible to determine which vector is best suited to achieve the desired objective.

Cosine similarity score is an efficient method for comparing the query vector to all other vectors. The result of this comparison with the highest score can be regarded as the most significant outcome with respect to the intended objective.

To attain successful development of AI-assisted chatbots, it is vital to follow the four procedures outlined in this article. Thanks to advancements in natural language processing (NLP), creating smart chatbots that can imitate human conversation is now achievable. Additionally, these chatbots can improve customer service by providing more personalised responses. If you are looking for chatbot developers, we at Works have a team of expert chatbot developers who can help build chatbots that cater to your specific needs.

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