How to Use Python and Pandas to Make an Adaptive Web App

In recent years, web applications have rapidly become the preferred choice over mobile applications. This is largely due to their ability to be accessed from a variety of devices without the need for downloading, thus occupying less space in device memory and providing a cost-efficient solution. There are multiple languages that can be used to create web applications, with Python, Java, JavaScript, and C# being among the most popular choices. In this article, we will explore how to construct a web application framework using Python. Additionally, we will also discuss the Pandas data science library and the PyScript framework.

Getting Started with PyScript

John Smith, Co-founder and current CEO of Anaconda, unveiled PyScript at the PyCon conference in 2022. PyScript provides a key benefit in that it eliminates the need for a server, instead interacting directly with the browser. To facilitate this, Pyodide, a WebAssembly-based Python interpreter, is utilised as it is compatible with a wide range of modern web browsers.

What led to the creation of Pyscript?

PyScript was created by leveraging the capabilities of three major technologies: Emscripten, Pyodide, and WebAssembly (WASM). Emscripten is a LLVM-based compiler designed to convert C and C++ programs and libraries into WebAssembly, a binary instruction format for a stack-based virtual machine, which allows for faster execution in web browsers than languages that are interpreted or dynamically generated like JavaScript. Pyodide, through the use of micropip, makes it possible to execute any package from the Python Package Index (PyPI) repository within a web browser.

PyScript’s Capabilities

These are some of the things that can be done using PyScript:

  1. Make your APIs as uncluttered and user-friendly as possible.
  2. Create a framework with modular, reusable parts.
  3. Back up and improve on HTML.

You may be wondering, “Why use PyScript now?”

Prior to the development of PyScript, programming was hindered by two main obstacles. HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as user interface (UI) languages, provided the impetus for the invention of PyScript, a programming language that aimed to address these issues. PyScript was thus designed to streamline the programming process, allowing developers to create sophisticated code more quickly and easily.

  1. Until recently, there was no simple method to create user interfaces for packaging and deploying Python programs.
  2. The learning curves for up-to-date markup languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript are quite high.

All of these issues, as well as those encountered in packaging, CI/CD, and deployment, are addressed by PyScript.

PyScript’s Unique Functions

PyScript’s capabilities include:

  1. Makes it possible for Python to run locally on a web browser, eliminating the requirement for a server.
  2. Permits the usage of the Python library and its many useful packages.
  3. Objects in both JavaScript and Python may exchange data with one another.
  4. Provides a malleable framework by letting Python be used for the development of modular components.
  5. Facilitates the creation of user interface elements for developers.

Competing Python Web Application Frameworks

Flask and Django are two more popular options for creating a Python-based server-side web application.

  1. Flask

    It is a micro-framework that is often used to create RESTful APIs. Some of the things it can do are:
    • Support for Integrated Unit Testing
    • c) Simple bug fixing
    • Integrated server for development
    • RESTful and HTTP request processing (d).
  2. Django

    It is widely accepted that among the various Python web application frameworks available, one stands out as being one of the best. This web application framework, boasting many integrated features, has been designed to provide users with a secure and efficient experience. Some of the capabilities it provides include:
    • The use of in-built database systems such as SQLite3
    • c. Convenient administration through a built-in administration page
    • Affordability and simplicity of upkeep and scalability
    • d. It’s written in Python, a “glue language,” so it may be taken anywhere.

Building a Python framework for web applications

Here are the steps involved in creating a full-fledged framework for a web project written in Python:

  1. Ideation
  2. Interface and User Experience Design
  3. Development
  4. Deployment

Phase of Ideation

The product delivery life cycle begins with a stage of ideation, where teams collaborate to generate solutions that effectively address the needs and concerns of end users. This stage is of paramount importance as it prioritises the end user experience to guarantee that the most suitable product is provided.

After brainstorming potential solutions, the next stage is to conduct a thorough analysis of the market and competition. Following this, the MoSCoW (Must Have, Should Have, Could Have, Won’t Have) methodology should be employed to map out the core features and functions of the proposed Python web application framework.

  • Mo — Essential qualities
  • Should-have options with an emphasis on the letter “S”
  • Would-have, Should-have, Could-have, and Maybe Functions
  • I don’t need those extra features, so I’ll just say “W.”

Interface and User Experience Design

Creating an aesthetically pleasing user interface (UI) and enhancing the user experience (UX) is the next step. UI focuses on the visual appeal of a web application, such as typefaces, colour schemes, and the way icons are arranged. UX, on the other hand, is concerned with improving the way users interact with the product, including how quickly queries are processed and how quickly the web application framework responds to user input. In order to create a successful web application, both UI and UX must be taken into consideration.


In this phase of the project, developers select the most suitable technologies, frameworks, and tools to construct the project. This selection includes databases, cloud servers for deployment, programming languages, and operating systems, all of which are combined to create the technology stack.

These are some typical technologies found in stacks:

  1. LAMP

    Combining Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Perl/Python
  2. MEAN

    Express.js, Angular, Node.js, and MongoDB
  3. MERN

    Technologies: MongoDB; Express.js; React; Node.js

The following actions make up the development phase:

Designing a Database Architecture

It is essential to have a database in order to reliably store, collect, analyse, and maintain the data to ensure it is accessible when required. Structured Query Language (SQL) enables users to carry out Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations on the database. Three of the most commonly used databases are MySQL, PostgreSQL, and MongoDB. Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a widely used architecture that can be easily explained as follows:

  1. Model

    Required for database management. The database, the API, or a JSON object may all be used to store data.
  2. View

    The Visual Design Team is responsible for managing the visual elements and layout of the interface, with the goal of creating a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) to present the model’s results. The team works to ensure that the interface is intuitive, attractive and easy to use.
  3. Controller

    Data retrieval, manipulation, and presentation from a database require a bridge between the view and the model in order to facilitate the transformation of model output into view data. This bridge enables the data to move between the conceptual view (the model) and the user’s view (the view). As a result, the user is provided with a comprehensive and efficient way to access, manipulate, and present data from the database.

Development of the front end

Front-end development is the process of designing, constructing, and maintaining the user interface that allows users to interact with a website or application. This user interface is typically built using a combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, and there are a variety of frameworks available to web developers to assist them in this process. Three of the most popular front-end JavaScript frameworks are Vue, React, and Angular, each of which provide developers with access to components and templates.

Programming for the back end and API

Coding and server and database design are examples of backend development. To kick off the back-end logic, one of two apps types must be used:

  1. Simple, one-page form

    By utilising Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), it is possible to modify the content of a single page without requiring a full page refresh from the server. This allows for a much smoother user experience, as a simple page refresh is all that is necessary to view the new content.
  2. Multiple-page form

    Calls for repeated server loads whenever the page is refreshed by the user.

While comprehensive programming and logic are essential for the backend, there are a variety of frameworks available to simplify the process. Ultimately, it is up to the developer and the project’s preferred technology stack to decide which framework will be employed. Some examples of potential frameworks include Node.js, Flask, Django, Laravel, Swift, and Flutter.

API-based back-and-front-end integration

This is an essential step in the development of a website. Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are employed to enable communication between the front-end and back-end components of the system. Web 2.0 activities, such as social networking and e-commerce, are also a major part of the phenomenon.

Testing Web Applications

Testing the functionality of the web application is a critical component of the product development cycle. At this stage, any issues that arise are carefully logged and the application is returned to the development team for further refinement. This process is repeated until each of the test cases have been successfully passed.


The final stage of product development is hosting the web application on a cloud server. This is accomplished by first constructing the application on a local server and then transferring it to the cloud. Two popular cloud hosting platforms are Heroku and Amazon Web Services (AWS). By using these services, the web application can be made accessible to users.

Tutorial on creating Python scripts

You may get the whole PyScript package from their website. You may also use the URL to include it straight into your HTML code.

Python web application development libraries

  1. Pandas

    Pandas is a popular Python library used for data analysis. It facilitates the comprehension of tabular data by providing an intuitive structure – the Dataframe. A Dataframe is a two-dimensional table object stored in memory, consisting of rows and columns. In addition, Pandas provides two of the most common data objects – Dataframe and Series objects – to simplify data transformation. With Pandas, data can be easily read and viewed, making data analysis more efficient.
  2. NumPy

    Numerical Python, often referred to as Numeric Python, is the most commonly utilised library for performing calculations on arrays and matrices in a quick and straightforward manner. This library simplifies the process of working with multidimensional arrays, providing users with the ability to execute a variety of matrix operations such as addition, subtraction, and inversion.
  3. Seaborn

    Python’s visualisation community heavily uses this package. It paves the way for the development of sophisticated data-driven graphics.
  4. Matplotlib

    When it comes to plotting graphs and displaying data, Matplotlib is one of the most popular libraries because of its many useful features.
    • Generating plots worthy of publishing is your next assignment.
    • Create figures that can be zoomed, panned, and updated in real time.
    • Format the presentation to your liking.
    • Convert your files into a wide variety of formats for export.
    • Utilise JupyterLab and Graphical User Interfaces.
    • Take use of a wide variety of add-ons created for Matplotlib.

Python’s REPL (Remote evaluator for programmers) tag

The Read-Eval-Print-Loop (REPL) is a powerful tool for executing Python code in an interactive environment. It enables users to enter Python code, have the results displayed, and then repeat the loop again. Jupyter Notebook is an online platform that provides users with a REPL experience. This platform is an ideal choice for anyone looking to explore the possibilities of Python programming.

Alternatively, you may use PyScript, which provides access to the Python shell through the tag, to create REPL. <py-repl> . With this, you can easily write code in the cell visible on the web page and get the desired output like a Jupyter Notebook.

The Jupyter notebook is based on the Jupyter kernel and the Python-based iPython shell, which enables interactive data analysis. This is the actual means by which the system is implemented, allowing users to execute code, visualise results, and create documents that combine code, output, and text in one place. <py-repl> .

PyScript’s benefits and drawbacks

Unfortunately, PyScript’s lack of maturity prevents it from being widely adopted in commercial settings due to its reliance on the hardware of the machine processing it. Its performance is entirely dependent on the capabilities of the browser, so if the hardware doesn’t meet the necessary requirements, the performance will be negatively impacted. Despite this, the lack of a server requirement is also one of PyScript’s greatest advantages, making it far easier to deploy and maintain.

Through this course, we have covered a comprehensive range of topics, such as the fundamentals of Python, the features of PyScript, and the fundamentals of coding in PyScript. PyScript is a revolutionary new technology in the domain of web development, which allows for the server-less creation of user interface languages like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript within the Python programming language. It significantly reduces the amount of effort needed to create a framework for building web applications, making it an incredibly efficient solution for the long-term.

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