How to Use Python and Pandas to Make an Adaptive Web App

Web applications have quickly surpassed mobile applications in popularity in recent times, primarily due to their universality and availability on a range of devices without the need for downloads. This makes them a cost-effective and space-saving solution. There exists a multitude of languages for developing web applications, but some of the most popular choices include Python, Java, JavaScript, and C#. In this piece, we will delve into creating a web application framework utilising Python, as well as exploring the data science library Pandas and the PyScript framework.

Beginning with PyScript

During the PyCon conference in 2022, PyScript was announced by John Smith, co-founder and present CEO of Anaconda. A significant advantage of PyScript is that the need for a server is eradicated as it interacts directly with the browser. The Pyodide, a WebAssembly-based Python interpreter which is compatible with a host of contemporary web browsers, is employed to facilitate this functionality.

What sparked the development of PyScript?

PyScript is the result of the integration of three major technologies – Emscripten, Pyodide, and WebAssembly (WASM). To convert C and C++ programs and libraries into WebAssembly, a binary instruction format for a stack-based virtual machine that allows for faster web browser execution than interpreted or dynamically generated languages like JavaScript, Emscripten is a LLVM-based compiler. Through the use of micropip, Pyodide makes it feasible to execute any package from the Python Package Index (PyPI) repository inside a web browser.

The Capabilities of PyScript

PyScript facilitates the following tasks:

  1. Make your Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) as intuitive and user-friendly as feasible.
  2. Design a framework comprising of modular and reusable components.
  3. Enhance and support HTML.

You may be questioning, “What makes PyScript a valuable choice at present?”

Programming was faced with two significant challenges before the advent of PyScript. HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which served as user interface (UI) languages, were the driving force behind the creation of PyScript, a programming language intended to address these problems. The goal of PyScript was to make the programming process more efficient, enabling developers to create sophisticated code with greater ease and speed.

  1. Previously, no straightforward approach existed for developing user interfaces to package and deploy Python programs.
  2. Modern markup languages, such as HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, have a steep learning curve.

PyScript resolves all of these concerns, as well as those related to packaging, Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD), and deployment.

Distinctive Features of PyScript

PyScript offers the following capabilities:

  1. Eliminates the need for a server, allowing Python to run directly on a web browser.
  2. Allows the use of the comprehensive Python library and its many beneficial packages.
  3. JavaScript and Python objects can exchange data with each other.
  4. Uses a flexible framework that enables Python to be used in constructing modular components.
  5. Enables developers to easily create user interface components.

Other Python Web Application Frameworks

Flask and Django are two other widely used alternatives for developing Python-based server-side web applications.

  1. Flask

    It is a micro-framework primarily utilized for developing RESTful APIs. Here are some of its capabilities:
    • Includes integrated unit testing support.
    • c) Quick and easy bug fixing.
    • Comes with a built-in server for development purposes.
    • Supports RESTful and HTTP request processing (d).
  2. Django

    It is widely regarded as one of the best Python web application frameworks available, offering a plethora of integrated features and a secure, efficient user experience. Here are several of its capabilities:
    • Includes support for built-in database systems such as SQLite3.
    • c. Easy administration through a built-in admin page.
    • Cost-effectiveness and ease of maintenance and scalability.
    • d. Written in Python, a “glue language,” making it easily portable to any environment.

Developing Python Frameworks for Web Applications

These are the steps to follow to create a comprehensive framework for a Python-written web project:

  1. Ideation
  2. Designing User Interface and Experience
  3. Development
  4. Deployment

Ideation Phase

The product delivery lifecycle commences with the ideation stage, where teams collaborate to generate solutions that effectively address the needs and concerns of end-users. This stage is crucial as it prioritizes the end-user experience to guarantee the most fitting product is delivered.

After generating potential solutions, the next phase involves conducting a comprehensive market and competition analysis. Then, the MoSCoW (Must Have, Should Have, Could Have, Won’t Have) methodology should be used to outline the fundamental features and functions of the proposed Python web application framework.

  • Mo – Vital Qualities
  • Should-have options with a focus on the letter “S”
  • Won’t-have, Should-have, Could-have, and Possible Functions
  • Since I do not require any additional features, I’ll simply use “W.”

User Interface and Experience Design

The subsequent phase involves creating an aesthetically pleasing user interface (UI) and enhancing the user experience (UX). UI concentrates on the visual appeal of a web application, such as the arrangement of icons, colour schemes, and typefaces. UX, on the other hand, is focused on improving the users’ interaction with the product through swift query processing and fast responses from the web application framework to user input. For a successful web application, both UI and UX must be taken into consideration.


In this project phase, developers choose the most appropriate technologies, frameworks, and tools to construct the project. This selection encompasses databases, cloud servers for deployment, programming languages, and operating systems. All these are combined to create the technology stack.

Here are some common technologies commonly found in technology stacks:

  1. LAMP

    It combines Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Perl/Python
  2. MEAN

    It includes Express.js, Angular, Node.js, and MongoDB
  3. MERN

    Technologies Used: MongoDB, Express.js, React and Node.js

The development phase comprises of the following activities:

Creating a Database Architecture

Having a reliable database is crucial for storing, gathering, analysing, and maintaining data to make it accessible when needed. Structured Query Language (SQL) allows users to perform Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations on the database. MySQL, PostgreSQL, and MongoDB are among the most widely used databases. Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a prevalent architecture that can be conveniently explained as follows:

  1. Model

    Essential for database management, it stores data and can use the database, API or a JSON object for storage.
  2. View

    The visual design team is accountable for managing the interface’s visual elements and layout. Their aim is to create an intuitive, visually appealing, and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while presenting the model’s outcomes. They ensure the interface is simple to use and comprehend.
  3. Controller

    Retrieving, manipulating and displaying data from a database necessitates a bridge between the view and the model. This bridge facilitates the conversion of model output into view data, allowing the data to flow between the conceptual view (the model) and the user’s view (the view). Therefore, users have an efficient way to access, manipulate and present database data.

Front-End Development

Front-end development is responsible for designing, constructing, and maintaining the user interface that permits users to interact with a website or application. The interface is typically created using a combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Web developers have access to several frameworks that can assist them in the process. Vue, React and Angular are among the most popular front-end JavaScript frameworks. These frameworks provide developers with access to templates and components.

Back-End Programming and API

Backend programming includes coding, server and database design. To initiate the back-end logic, one of the two types of apps must be used:

  1. Simple One-Page Form

    By leveraging Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), modifying the content of a single page is possible without necessitating a complete page refresh from the server. This results in a smoother user experience as only a simple page refresh is required to view the new content.
  2. Multiple-Page Form

    Requires repeated server loads every time the user refreshes the page.

While thorough programming and logic are necessary for the back-end, several frameworks are available to streamline the process. It is up to the developer and the project’s preferred technology stack to determine which framework to use. Node.js, Flask, Django, Laravel, Swift, and Flutter are some potential frameworks to consider.

Integration of Back-End and Front-End via API

This is a crucial stage in website development. Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are used to facilitate communication between the system’s front-end and back-end components. Web 2.0 activities such as social networking and e-commerce also play a substantial role in this domain.

Web Application Testing

Testing the web application’s functionality is a vital part of the product development cycle. At this point, any issues are meticulously documented, and the application is returned to the development team for further improvement. This process is repeated until all test cases have been satisfactorily addressed.


The ultimate stage in product development is hosting the web application on a cloud server. Initially, the application is created on a local server before being moved to the cloud. Two favoured cloud hosting platforms are Heroku and Amazon Web Services (AWS). These services make the web application accessible to users.

Python Script Creation Tutorial

The complete PyScript package may be obtained from their website. You can also use the URL to directly include it in your HTML code.

Libraries for Developing Python Web Applications

  1. Pandas

    Pandas is a prevalent Python library for data analysis. It enhances the comprehension of tabular data by providing an intuitive structure – the Dataframe. A Dataframe is a memory-stored two-dimensional table object, consisting of rows and columns. Furthermore, to simplify data transformation, Pandas provides two of the most common data objects – Dataframe and Series objects. With Pandas, data can be effortlessly read and viewed, increasing the efficiency of data analysis.
  2. NumPy

    Numerical Python, commonly known as Numeric Python, is the most widely used library for quickly and easily performing calculations on arrays and matrices. This library streamlines the process of working with multidimensional arrays, allowing users to execute various matrix operations such as addition, subtraction, and inversion.
  3. Seaborn

    This package is extensively utilised in Python’s visualisation community. It enables the creation of sophisticated data-driven graphics.
  4. Matplotlib

    Matplotlib is of the most commonly used libraries for displaying data and plotting graphs due to its many helpful features.
    • Your next task is to generate publication-worthy plots.
    • Develop figures that can be zoomed, panned, and updated in real-time.
    • Customize the presentation to your preference.
    • Convert your files into a wide range of formats for exporting.
    • Make use of JupyterLab and Graphical User Interfaces.
    • Take advantage of the multitude of add-ons developed for Matplotlib.

Python’s REPL (Remote Evaluator for Programmers) Tag

The Read-Eval-Print-Loop (REPL) is a useful tool for running Python code in an interactive environment. It allows users to input Python code, display the results, and then repeat the loop. Jupyter Notebook is an online platform that offers users a REPL experience. This platform is the perfect choice for those interested in exploring the capabilities of Python programming.

Alternatively, you can use PyScript, which grants access to the Python shell via the tag, to create a REPL.

<py-repl> . With this, you can easily write code in the cell visible on the web page and get the desired output like a Jupyter Notebook.

The Jupyter Notebook is constructed on Jupyter kernel and the Python-based iPython shell, which allows for interactive data analysis. This is the actual mechanism through which the system operates, allowing users to execute code, visualize results, and create documents that merge code, output, and text in a single location.

<py-repl> .

The Pros and Cons of PyScript

Regrettably, PyScript’s immaturity hinders its broad adoption in professional environments because it relies on the hardware of the machine that processes it. Its efficiency is entirely contingent on the browser’s capacity, therefore if the hardware fails to meet the necessary criteria, the performance may be adversely affected. Nevertheless, the absence of a server prerequisite is also one of PyScript’s most significant benefits, making deployment and maintenance substantially easier.

Throughout this course, we have explored a vast array of topics, including Python basics, PyScript features, and coding essentials in PyScript. PyScript is an innovative technology in web development that enables the production of user interface languages, such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, without the need for a server, all within the Python programming language. It significantly reduces the effort required to construct a framework for web app development, making it an exceptionally effective solution for the long haul.

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