Across industries, the impact of deep learning and neural networks has been notable with endless opportunities in autonomous vehicles, e-commerce, production, healthcare, robotics, and other areas. Thanks to their ability to identify intricate patterns in data, that could have easily evaded human cognition, neural networks continue to make noteworthy breakthroughs and bring significant advancements to these sectors.
In recent years, the application of deep learning techniques to process visual data has resulted in outstanding outcomes such as the use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) commonly employed to achieve better performance on image-based data sets. Additionally, doctors can now use deep learning algorithms to analyse CT scans and X-rays with greater precision, enabling them to identify ailments such as cancer with higher accuracy.
Incorporating deep learning into scientific research has played a crucial role in boosting research and discoveries in various fields. Companies such as DeepMind are leading the way in developing cutting-edge algorithms and systems. DeepMind’s groundbreaking AlphaFold2 algorithm, for instance, has significantly advanced our understanding of protein structure and form.
This post will examine the potential application of deep learning in the field of quantum chemistry.
What is Quantum Chemistry?
Quantum Chemistry, also known as molecular quantum mechanics, is a subfield of physical chemistry that utilizes principles of quantum mechanics to study chemical systems. Its primary focus is on using quantum-mechanical calculations to determine the electronic contributions and effects, which are essential in predicting essential features of wave functions and visible aspects, usually through suitable approximations that enable practicality and sufficient information for computations.
The Density Functional Theory (DFT)
The Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a computational modelling technique widely used in physical, chemical, and mechanical sciences to investigate atomic, molecular, and condensed-phase materials. It provides vital insights into the electrical or nuclear structures of these materials. Functionals, known as functions of functions, are employed in DFT to analyze systems with many electrons accurately. Electron density functionals, specifically, concentrate on the electrons’ position in the system.
The mapping of energy density functionals in Density Functional Theory (DFT) is currently being modelled through the application of deep learning. DFT simplifies quantum chemistry computations significantly, but accurately mapping electronic probability densities to energy poses a challenge. To overcome this hurdle, machine learning and deep learning models are employed to act as a functional and convert 3D electron density to chemical interactions’ energy.
DeepMind has developed the DM21 neural network model for the same purpose. Let’s delve into this model in more detail.
DM21: DeepMind’s AI Model for Quantum Chemistry
Scientists can use quantum chemistry to forecast molecules’ chemical characteristics by utilizing the principles of quantum physics. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has facilitated quantum chemistry calculations, but practicable computation mandates a functional or mapping of electronic probability density to energy. Despite the absence of a precise functional, assumptions serve as alternatives that scientists have effectively employed in various disciplines, such as solid-state physics and nuclear spectroscopy, for many years.
Despite the thorough comprehension of systems with fractional electron properties, such as fractional charge (FC) or fractional spin, most current approximations and methods struggle to predict outcomes accurately and are prone to “pathological mistakes” (FS). Manually constructed functionals are especially susceptible to errors because developing functionals that handle all exceptional cases can be challenging. To tackle this issue, the team at DeepMind decided to adopt a deep learning strategy.
DM21 refers to the neural network model created by DeepMind, a subsidiary of Google. It is utilized in quantum mechanical modelling to transform electron density to chemical interactions’ energy and is freely available for distribution. It can be incorporated into the PySCF simulator for additional applications.
DM21 employs a Neural Network (NN) model to approximate the energy density functional in Density Functional Theory (DFT). The model features a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) structure and uses an electron density grid as input to output the energy of chemical interactions. Earlier functional approximations had limitations, such as the incapacity to deal with systems possessing fractional electron characteristics. However, DM21 has resolved these problems effectively.
Creating Effective Models
The DM21 model’s training method involved the use of supervised learning techniques and the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network architecture. The training procedure employed a dataset of 1161 samples, where the inputs were spatial grids of Kohn-Sham (KS) orbital features or electron concentrations, and the output values/labels comprised high-accuracy reaction energies.
Regression loss was used to train the model, and an extra gradient regularizer term was added to enable it to be incorporated into self-consistent field (SCF) calculations.
Evaluation and Criteria
To determine the accuracy of the DM21 model, evaluations were conducted using the Bond-Breaking Benchmark (BBB), GMTKN55, and QM9 datasets. These datasets offered insight into chemical tasks not included in the model’s training data. The results of the evaluation showed that the DM21 model outperformed four of the latest implementations, thereby establishing a new level of performance across these benchmarks.
The authors conducted a study and determined that DM21 offers a performance that is comparable to that of far more expensive double-hybrid functionals, when compared to other hybrid functionals.
The DM21 model has been found to provide the most accurate estimates of the energy of chemical interactions in molecules as compared to conventional methods of manually constructing functionals, rendering it the most efficient functional to date.
This serves as a demonstration of deep learning models’ impressive ability to capture and incorporate patterns in data that have not been encountered before. This approach not only provides models with precise predictions of energy states but also considers special cases that may result in unusual errors due to fractional electrons.
Revolutionary Progress in Quantum Chemistry Enabled by DL
Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a widely used tool for studying the principles of physics and chemistry. In recent years, the implementation of deep learning techniques has led to significant advancements in the area of quantum chemistry. As a result, AI is becoming a rapidly developing area of research, as more scientists adopt it to gain deeper understanding of the physical world.
In 2019, Stanford scientists employed a convolutional neural network to achieve favourable outcomes for an assorted range of organic compounds. In 2020, machine learning was used by Caltech to address the Navier-Stokes equation, while in 2021, DeepMind’s AlphaFold2 AI was utilised to forecast protein structures. These breakthroughs highlight the potential of artificial intelligence and its ability to solve intricate problems.
Based on our research and the advancements we have achieved so far, it is rational to assert that deep learning and machine learning will become more widespread in the future, offering us the opportunity to uncover even more revolutionary scientific findings.