The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become increasingly widespread in recent years, primarily due to the advancements and innovations in the field that have made it recognisable in a variety of sectors. AI is primarily used to train computers to improve their performance through a process of trial and error. A major breakthrough in AI is the development of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which simulate the way in which real neurons in the brain carry out their functions.
In this piece, we’ll take a look at the main uses of ANNs in AI as well as how they’re designed to mimic the human brain.
Can you explain what an artificial neural network is?
When asked to define a neural network, the inventor of the first neurocomputer, Dr. Robert Hecht Nielsen, used the following criteria.
A computer system is composed of multiple interconnected processing units that modify their internal states in order to process data in response to external inputs. These processing units are generally quite basic and are linked together in a highly interconnected manner.
Deciphering a challenging problem necessitates the collective effort of a network of neurons to process mathematical calculations. As a component of Artificial Intelligence, it incorporates a range of associated technologies, like Deep Learning and Machine Learning, to generate solutions.
The goal of artificial neural networks is to replicate the learning capabilities of the human brain. This is accomplished through the use of three distinct layers: the input layer, the hidden layer, and the output layer. Each pair of nodes within each of the three layers is associated with its own weight and activation threshold. A node is only considered to be activated if the activation threshold is exceeded by the node’s own threshold.
What ANN Contributes to AI
Facial recognition technology is just one illustration of how modern organisations are leveraging cutting-edge solutions to tackle previously unsolvable problems, consequently resulting in enhanced security. This technology has enabled organisations to identify and respond to potential threats more quickly and efficiently, thus providing a level of safety that was not previously attainable.
Utilising facial recognition technology, only authorised personnel are granted access to the building. This technology is ideal for real-time systems, due to its responsiveness and speed.
Neural networks can be utilised for a variety of purposes, such as data analysis, handwriting recognition, and weather forecasting. Perhaps the most fascinating potential application of neural networks is the possibility of developing “conscious” networks in the near future. This opens up the possibility of a range of new and exciting applications, which could revolutionise the way we interact with technology.
It is possible that networks may be able to analyse and synthesise data which has not been previously analysed, and draw meaningful conclusions from it. Furthermore, these networks may have the capacity to modify their responses to a user’s preferences, thereby becoming increasingly more accurate and useful with repeated use.
As an illustration, consider a neural network that is designed to make music recommendations tailored to an individual’s preferences. For example, if the model has been trained to recommend rock and metal music, but the individual’s preferred genre is Jazz, the neural network will be able to quickly adapt and offer personalised song suggestions based on the individual’s taste.
If you specialise in finance or business, you are well aware of the value of neural networks in identifying fraudulent activity. Major companies such as Uber and Swiggy, who are still in the process of establishing themselves, are taking advantage of artificial neural networks to identify and prevent financial losses.
Exactly how do computerised neural networks function?
In an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), numerous neurons are organised in layers and function simultaneously. Each neuron is essentially a linear regression model with a specific activation function, ranging from a basic model to a multi-linear model.
Raw data is initially supplied to the first layer, also referred to as the input layer. This layer then philtres out most of the inputs, leaving only the most pertinent information. Subsequently, the output layer produces the expected result of the artificial neural network’s processing of the input data. The output layer may comprise of one node or multiple nodes.
All of the outputs from the layer that came before are connected to the first and second neurons of the initial layer, and this pattern continues for the remaining neurons in the first hidden layer. The input is then processed by the artificial neural network, which adds a bias to the weighted sum of all of the inputs.
An activation function, such as sigmoid, ReLU, or tanH, is applied to the output of the previous equation. When the value returned by the activation function is greater than the activation threshold, the node is said to be “activated,” and the information is propagated to the next layer of the neural network.
The outputs of these masked layers are used as inputs to the next layer. Each neuron has a weighted and biassed connection to every other neuron.
The weights of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are of paramount importance, as they form the foundation for the neural network’s learning process. By modifying the weight value, the neural network is able to determine the significance of each signal. Moreover, Forward Propagation is the process of passing information from one layer to the subsequent one.
Various Neural Network Structures
The term “depth” when referring to neural networks is often used to describe the number of layers between an input and an output. This is why deep learning is commonly associated with neural networks; the greater the number of layers, the deeper the network and the more complex the machine learning model can be.
Among the many varieties of artificial neural network are:
In feedforward neural networks, information is continually fed into the network in a linear fashion.
Neural networks can be implemented in a variety of ways; however, the simplest iteration involves information travelling in a linear fashion from a number of input nodes to a final destination. This type of artificial neural network (ANN) computational model is employed in technologies such as natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision.
Networks of neurons that store and retrieve information continuously
Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are an effective tool for processing sequential information due to their ability to remember previous inputs. They are built using feed-forward neural networks and operate similarly to the human brain. The nodes within the RNN act like memory cells, allowing the network to easily recall context from previous sentences.
Machine learning techniques based on convolutional neural networks
It is a widely recognised model that is still widely utilised in present times. This type of network is typically used to process image data. The convolutional layers are used to extract features. For example, if the image is of a human, the layers would be able to recognise distinguishing features such as their nose, ear, and hand. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been successfully employed in many of the latest Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, including facial recognition, natural language processing, image classification, fingerprint identification, and many more.
Pros of using computer-generated neural networks
- The entire network’s data is securely stored in these systems, meaning that the network will remain operational even if data is lost from a single location.
- It is possible that networks could deliver output with minimal input, however, the less significant the data is that is not attainable, the greater the loss of efficiency will be.
- If any node fails at any time, it will not effect the final product. Because of this, the network’s failure tolerance has increased.
Negative aspects of computer-generated neural networks
- One of the main drawbacks associated with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is that they do not provide any insight as to how or why certain outcomes were generated. ANNs have the potential to generate novel features, however, these features are often unknown and the capabilities of these features are unclear. As such, ANNs are commonly referred to as “Black Box” systems due to their lack of transparency.
- An artificial neural network necessitates a powerful processor with exceptional parallel processing abilities in order to effectively process millions of data points. As such, the inclusion of a graphics processing unit (GPU) is an absolute necessity for satisfactory results.
Neural Network (NN) simulation is a technique used to emulate the manner in which the brain processes information. This application of artificial intelligence produces algorithms that are capable of producing complex model structures and predicting potential issues. Being an advanced technology, ANN is constantly being enhanced and improved upon. As scientists are still attempting to comprehend the workings of the human brain, it is reasonable to assume that replicating it with a NN simulation will be a difficult challenge.