The Best One Hundred Development Tools

Examining the top 100 languages for programming, it is evident that it is necessary to evaluate the top 100 frameworks for constructing software. Frameworks are an integral component of modern software development, and their emergence has been a key factor in the success of the industry.

As a result, we have compiled a list of the most popular software frameworks and provided a brief overview of each. We are aware that this may lead to some debate, as some may feel that we have overlooked a necessary framework in our considerations. Additionally, some may disagree that all of the frameworks listed qualify as such. It is also possible that we have not included a popular framework.

For this reason, it should be noted that this is not intended to be, nor does it try to be, a comprehensive list of all possible topics. To put it simply, we wanted to take a look back at the various frameworks we use to support our development here at Works. Additionally, the order in which they are listed does not reflect their relative importance or popularity. We simply noted the information as we remembered it.

To Begin, Let’s Define “software Development framework.”

A framework is essentially a system which provides a basic structure for software development. It enforces an architectural pattern and sometimes a particular software design philosophy, allowing programmers to build on it. Imposing structure can be beneficial as it helps to ensure consistency and quality in the development process.

It is clear that frameworks are beneficial to the development process as they provide pre-built components such as classes and functions, which enable typical software activities such as input processing and system interaction. This allows programmers to focus on creating new features for their apps rather than having to recreate code that has already been written. This in turn speeds up and optimises the development process.

The Components of a Framework

All frameworks share certain features, most notably the built-in logic that defines how the different components of an application interact. This underlying architecture is present in all frameworks, providing a common structure to build upon.

The logical structure of the framework is both its main requirement and its greatest benefit, as previously noted. Furthermore, the framework provides the following additional advantages:

  • Generic functionality
  • Built-in solutions to typical development tasks and procedures
  • Code structures
  • Theories of progress

You may be wondering if a framework is the same as a library, given the information provided. The answer is no. Similar to how frameworks provide pre-written functionality and code structures, libraries offer the same, but developers will only use them when they deem it necessary (due to the imposition).

How to Choose a Development Framework

Upon exploring the list of the top 100 development frameworks, it becomes evident that there is a plethora of frameworks that appear to offer the same functions for a similar purpose. This could potentially be overwhelming in terms of deciding which framework to choose.

It can be difficult to choose the right framework when they all meet the same basic needs. The best option depends on what you are trying to create – web development, data science, mobile development, etc. To narrow down the selection, it’s important to consider the expertise of your development team. If your team have expertise in Python, then you should opt for a Python framework.

This should help you to narrow down your options, but won’t necessarily make it easier to make a final decision. What would be your safest option? You could try to find similar projects and look at what frameworks the developers used to build them. This will give you a better idea of what you can create using a certain framework and help you decide if it is the right choice for you.

Having addressed the necessary considerations, we can now proceed to the list. The frameworks have been categorised into subsets based on their applicable tasks, with the aim of creating a structured overview.

Web Application Frameworks

  1. Angular

    Angular is a widely-used web development framework, developed by Google and based on TypeScript. It follows the MVC pattern, enabling the swift and straightforward construction of applications of varied complexity – from the simplest to the most intricate, with millions of users.

    Angular is built on the web components standard, which provides the flexibility, scalability and modularity to reuse individual HTML elements. Furthermore, given that Angular is open source, there is plenty of freedom to utilise it for projects, as well as access to a large community with a wealth of resources at hand.

    Those hoping to achieve improved performance should consider Microsoft’s offerings. The tech giant provides two exceptional web development frameworks, ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core. The former is an excellent choice to expand .NET’s basic capabilities with tools and packages that heighten web development abilities, with features such as code completion, multi-factor authentication, and web-page template syntax.

    ASP.NET Core is a reworking of the legacy Windows-only versions of ASP.NET, now available as an open-source solution. This framework is ideal for web developers creating modern web applications and services, and can be used with Windows, Linux, macOS, or Docker.
  3. Express

    Express is a basic and unopinionated framework which is part of the well-known MEAN stack. It is the most commonly used server framework for Node.js due to its simplicity and effectiveness with the help of plugins. Furthermore, its excellent performance makes it a top choice among frameworks.

    Express is widely recognised for its comprehensive range of features and its wide range of HTTP utility methods, making it an optimal choice for two main goals. Firstly, Express is popular for the development of both web and mobile applications. Secondly, it is an invaluable asset for anyone creating powerful APIs as it makes the process quick and hassle-free.
  4. Vue

    Vue is a lightweight JavaScript framework which is highly effective. Its progressive nature allows it to be used in small applications or on the View layer of the MVC. Its simplicity also allows it to be easily integrated into other libraries and projects, increasing its value.

    Vue is an excellent tool for creating user interfaces. However, when combined with the latest development resources and tools, it can be used to construct highly sophisticated single-page applications.
  5. Spring

    Since its first release in 2003, Spring has quickly become a popular choice for its capacity to create efficient, lightweight and reusable code. While it is not a classic web framework, its POJO development style can be used to develop almost anything, thus making it a viable option for creating web applications on the Java EE platform.

    The Spring framework incorporates its own Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture to address the shortcomings of existing popular alternatives, making it a popular choice for web development.
  6. Django

    Django markets itself as the “web framework for perfectionists with deadlines” due to its flexible capabilities for fast development cycles. Python’s high-level framework enables the components to be reused, thus allowing for less code to be written as it emphasises the “don’t repeat yourself” philosophy.

    Django has become a popular choice amongst developers due its use of Python, one of the most widely used programming languages, and the enhanced security it provides for projects from the outset. It is a highly adaptable and scalable framework, making it possible to quickly and easily create web applications of any complexity.
  7. Flask

    Flask is another widely-utilised Python framework, taking a different approach to Django. Rather than imposing dependencies or project architectures, Flask provides alternative options, allowing developers the flexibility to choose the tools and libraries they wish to use in their projects and applications.

    One of the defining features of a microframework is that it does not contain pre-built libraries for commonly used features; Flask is an example of this. For certain developers, the advantages of having a lightweight, compact and easily managed framework can be a key factor in their decision-making.
  8. Laravel

    Laravel has certainly earned its reputation as a premier PHP framework for web developers. Drawing upon the strengths of other popular frameworks such as Rails and Sinatra, Laravel has created a unique and elegant syntax that is both powerful and easy to use. Built upon Symfony, Laravel is a Model-View-Controller framework that provides a comprehensive set of tools to help create sophisticated and scalable applications.

    Due to its pre-installed features such as authentication, caching, sessions and routing, Laravel can significantly reduce the complexity of web development. Additionally, it offers integrated unit testing support, allowing for confidence that applications are prepared for any eventuality.
  9. Rails, a Ruby Framework

    This widely-used Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework for server-side web development is commonly referred to as RoR or Rails. It is an industry-leading framework, pioneering features such as migrations and automated database table generation.

    Many web developers utilise Rails for the development of customised platforms, e-commerce sites, SaaS systems, and APIs, thanks to its object-oriented architecture, focus on data security, integration of tools, and potential for creativity.
  10. Symfony

    The Symfony community is adamant that the framework is more than just a web application framework. To them, Symfony is not just a framework, a philosophy or a community, but also a collection of PHP components. In addition to the concept and community shared by all frameworks, the components upon which Symfony is based are one of its distinguishing features. Components, at their core, are reusable, decoupled components which can be used to build applications.

    Symfony is a collection of PHP components that can be used to construct applications and websites. It is highly efficient and supports the development of code that is easily maintainable and extensible.
  11. Gatsby

    Gatsby has been likened to site generators by some, and whilst there is an element of truth to this, we have chosen to adopt Gatsby as it more closely resembles a modern frontend framework. With a range of plugins for integrating popular services and ‘recipes’ to automate web-based tasks, Gatsby, powered by React, provides all the necessary tools to create advanced websites.

    Gatsby is relatively easy to use; once your website code is complete, it is converted into a single HTML file, ready to be deployed to a server. Additionally, Gatsby’s pre-set parameters offer advantages such as fast page loading speeds, server-side rendering, data prefetching, and more.
  12. Sinatra

    Ruby professionals typically argue that Rails is the superior framework, however Sinatra is also worth considering when constructing web projects in Ruby. Although it may appear more akin to a library than a framework, Sinatra can still be considered as such due to its pre-defined methods and abstractions, enabling the creation of basic Ruby apps. Sinatra is known for its simplicity and minimalism, making it an ideal starting point for those wishing to learn about Ruby web applications.

    Sinatra is not only suitable for beginners but is also a great choice for projects that require a high degree of flexibility. This can be both a challenge and a benefit, as it puts the responsibility of structuring the app and managing communication on the user.
  13. CakePHP

    CakePHP is often considered to be a derivative of Ruby on Rails, as it is based on the same ideals. It utilises the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture and provides the tools necessary to build web applications, such as database access, authentication, and caching.

    CakePHP’s code generation and scaffolding capabilities make it an ideal choice for quickly creating prototypes. With its established ruleset, it can guide you through the development process, ensuring you reach a successful conclusion with a highly performant and secure solution.
  14. Horde

    Horde may not be the most sophisticated framework for developing software, however, it still has its advantages. Authentication, compression, connection tracking, and MIME handling are some of the features this PHP-based framework provides to enable fast web development.

    Horde is an especially appropriate choice for those working on groupware projects, such as an integrated inbox, calendar and task manager, as it offers a more comprehensive code base than the other frameworks available. Taking the time to become familiar with its features is highly recommended.
  15. Yii

    Yii is a powerful and efficient PHP framework for developing modern web applications. It utilises the MVC pattern, and provides a range of features to facilitate full-stack development, such as multi-tier caching, RESTful API support, and query builders. Yii strives to enable high performance through its use of concise, well-structured syntax.

    Yii is a highly flexible framework, which can be utilised to create a wide range of PHP programmes. Of particular value is its use for enterprise-level applications, such as web portals, online shops, and content management systems.
  16. Zend

    Zend (or ZF) is an extensive collection of PHP packages that can be utilised with the assistance of Composer, a package management system. It offers a wide range of language features and includes the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture for developing web applications using object-oriented programming.

    Zend is a powerful and reliable framework, optimised for enterprise-level applications. Its performance ensures high-usage operations can be undertaken with confidence, while its advanced security measures guarantee a secure environment.
  17. Zikula

    Zikula is a powerful PHP web development framework designed to create dynamic, collaborative websites and web applications that prioritize user interaction and security. Built on reliable and extensible Symfony, the framework is object-oriented and totally modular.

    There are a range of extensions available which can be utilised to create anything from a simple one-page website to a sophisticated online application. By taking advantage of Zikula, you can benefit from features such as categorisation, events and AJAX support, which can save you time.
  18. Bootstrap

    Many individuals view Bootstrap as the leading mobile-first, frontend web development framework owing to its composition of HTML, CSS and JavaScript. This is attributed to its flexibility and potent nature, allowing for usage by any user thanks to its user-friendly interface and plentiful libraries of pre-made templates and features, for example a flexible grid system and powerful JavaScript plugins.

    Bootstrap enables you to quickly and easily create informative webpages, as it ensures consistent display across web browsers. Furthermore, its layout components can be customised to meet your individual needs.
  19. Grails

    Grails is an Apache Groovy-based (and, by extension, Java-based) web application development framework which aims to provide a development environment that reduces the amount of choices developers need to make, while still allowing for customisation. It achieves this through a combination of factors, the most noteworthy of which is its convention-over-configuration philosophy and opinionated APIs with suitable defaults.

    Grails is compatible with the Java programming language, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and Java Enterprise Edition (EE) containers, and can be further extended through the use of plugins. It enables the creation of REST APIs and web applications with a JavaScript frontend, and makes use of application profiles.
  20. Play

    Play is a Java and Scala-based web application framework that brings together APIs and components to simplify the development of online applications. As a full-stack framework, it offers a comprehensive range of features for creating projects, including a routing system, integrated HTTP server and support for handling forms. Additionally, there is hot reloading so that code changes can be seen immediately.

    Play’s lightweight, stateless, and web-friendly architecture is one of the primary reasons behind its applications’ minimal resource usage. Thanks to its reactive approach, the applications can scale both horizontally and vertically.
  21. Web2py

    Web2py is an intuitive Python web application framework, originally designed as a pedagogical tool. It has since evolved, but remains user-friendly and requires no project-level configuration files. With its focus on convention over configuration, Web2py is an ideal choice for those seeking an efficient development framework.

    Web2py is an incredibly useful tool, enabling developers to create robust and secure online applications which can be quickly linked to a database. It also provides a web-based integrated development environment (IDE), allowing developers from around the world to use the framework and its tools to construct, deploy and manage their projects.
  22. Lumen

    Lumen‘s website warmly greets visitors by informing that this petite web framework is “undoubtedly Laravel” and “pleasantly straightforward”. Laravel’s microservices and quick APIs can be created with ease using this PHP framework, rendering it an ideal selection.

    Additionally, Lumen offers ample capacity to meet your development needs, enabling you to use Laravel functionalities such as caching, routing, and the service container with minimal setup. The best part is that you can easily port your Lumen project to a bigger Laravel setup and keep developing.
  23. TurboGears

    TurboGear is a Python web framework that adopts the Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm. Initially developed as a microframework, it can be scaled up to meet the requirements of more complex projects. This flexibility allows users to utilise it for both basic and more advanced tasks.

    TurboGears provides a modular application framework and WSGI components, as well as a configurable Object Relational Mapper (ORM) and support for various data exchange formats. Its designer-friendly template structure makes it an excellent choice for anyone working on a project.
  24. Phalcon

    Phalcon is an MVC-based PHP web framework which has been implemented as a web server plugin. This offers numerous advantages, such as increased speed, reduced resource usage and the ability to handle a high number of HTTP requests simultaneously. Therefore, Phalcon is a suitable choice for high-pressure projects that require optimal performance.

    It is not essential to have knowledge of C in order to make use of this full-stack framework. The Phalcon namespaces provide the interface to the PHP classes, and are ready to be used right away. Furthermore, due to its loosely coupled structure, only the components that are required will be utilised. This helps to reduce unnecessary code and improve the performance of the application.
  25. FuelPHP

    FuelPHP was created with the aim of providing a more robust alternative to existing PHP web application frameworks. To achieve this, the project relies heavily on its contributors who work collaboratively to report issues and suggest new features.

    FuelPHP is an MVC framework that fully supports HMVC, making it easier to “widgetise” content structures. This can save time as it eliminates the need to make multiple copies of layouts or create widgets to display the same content in different places.
  26. Spark

    The main aim of this lightweight microframework for creating Java and Kotlin web applications is to promote rapid development by providing expressive syntax which reduces the amount of code needed. Spark allows you to take advantage of the JVM’s power without needing to write complicated code.

    Spark is an excellent choice for microservices as it enables the development of REST APIs that can output JSON with only a few lines of code. Furthermore, it is compatible with template engines, which facilitate the quick development of both backend and frontend applications.
  27. Grok

    Grok is a web application framework for Python developers, providing a powerful suite of libraries from the Zope Toolkit. This makes Grok suitable for developers of any level, enabling them to take on projects of any size or complexity.

    Grok provides a set of components which can be used to quickly and easily create web applications without the need to tinker with configuration files or undertake lengthy development processes.
  28. Mojolicious

    Mojolicious is a new web application framework developed with Perl. It was created by the same team that developed Catalyst, hence the similarities. The goal was to create a framework that could handle both basic and advanced web applications, drawing upon their experience with Catalyst.

    The outcome of using Mojolicious is clear: it is a real-time framework that enables the development of single-file prototypes into comprehensive MVC web applications. It features several useful components such as routes, commands, plugins, templates, testing frameworks, and first-class Unicode support. Furthermore, its functionality can be extended with add-ons developed by other users.
  29. Slim Architecture

    The Fat-Free Framework is a microframework written in PHP that is designed to expedite the development of dynamic web applications. It offers a comprehensive set of tools, a stable code base, and an efficient method for software development, making it an ideal choice for those who want to start quickly without having to go through complex setup or directory structures.

    Despite being a microframework, the fat-free framework does not lack in power; it boasts a multiprotocol caching engine, URL routing, and built-in code highlighting, amongst other features.
  30. Wicket

    Wicket is a server-side web application framework suited to creating applications which utilise Java code with HTML content. It is especially beneficial due to its component-based approach, which organises applications as trees of components and patterns them in a stateful manner, similar to Swing. It also provides a range of features including support for multiple tabs and windows, encapsulation, inheritance, events in components, and a selection of Ajax components.

    Wicket is a versatile platform that can be used to create a wide variety of websites and applications. Furthermore, its CSP support and range of security features provide users with the assurance that their data is safe.
  31. Yesod

    Yesod is widely recognised as the most popular web framework for Haskell. It allows developers to create high-performance, type-safe web applications with minimal code, thanks to its concise syntax and domain-specific languages which are both simple and precise. This helps to reduce the potential for runtime errors.

    Yesod is renowned for its ability to separate functionality into specialised libraries, providing users with the freedom to select the library of features (forms, HTML rendering, databases, etc.) that best suits the project they are working on.
  32. For Those Who Are Familiar with Sencha Ext JS

    This powerful JavaScript framework, formerly known as Sencha Touch, provides the ability to create cross-platform web and mobile applications for a wide range of devices. It enables this through access to over 140 individual components, which can be combined to facilitate the rapid development of data-intensive applications.

    Sencha Ext JS offers a range of structures such as layouts, grids, charts, D3 visualizations and analytical algorithms. It simplifies the process by allowing you to quickly drag and drop elements without requiring hours of coding. This framework provides flexibility and allows you to have complete control over your project, enabling you to make modifications or insert additional code as and when you require.
  33. Nuxt.js

    Nuxt.js is marketed as “the meta-framework for universal apps”, indicating the potential of utilising Vue.js single-file components with the web application framework to generate web views written in JavaScript. This is not a simple task to complete, as utilising the server’s cache of pre-rendered components will significantly reduce the time required to reach the interactive portion of the application.

    Gaining a significant advantage can seem intimidating; however, Nuxt.js makes it simple for the development team to achieve. By allowing them to create the user interface in isolation, they can save both time and effort.
  34. Phoenix

    It is encouraging to see that frameworks are being developed for less popular languages, such as Elixir. Phoenix is an example of an Elixir MVC web framework, enabling developers to create dynamic, interactive and scalable web applications.

    Phoenix is a framework that aims to simplify programming by focusing on the core operations. It also benefits from the Erlang VM’s capability to handle large numbers of connections, plus it has a built-in dashboard that shows real-time statistics.
  35. CodeIgniter

    Skilled PHP programmers often recommend CodeIgniter due to its reputation for speed and performance. Furthermore, it does not require adherence to the MVC paradigm, which has left some developers feeling that CodeIgniter does not constitute a framework. Nevertheless, it is a vital tool for anyone looking to utilise PHP to create dynamic websites.

    CodeIgniter’s “near-zero-configuration” approach and built-in security features make it resistant to common online threats. This suggests that most of its setup will be automatically implemented, although it is important to note that there is still some control over this.
  36. PHPixie

    Originally a microframework, PHPixie has now been developed into a comprehensive full-stack PHP framework without compromising on speed. Its rigorous design is built on the avoidance of antipatterns, ensuring that any code created with PHPixie is easy to comprehend, test and maintain.

    Developers who favour a more ordered approach to coding and the capability to create once and use multiple times will benefit from PHPixie. The Composer tool, which is included in the PHPixie package, facilitates this convenience by packaging code into separate bundles. Furthermore, this framework is advantageous as it is compatible with MongoDB and includes stringent security measures.
  37. Javalin

    It may be that you are searching for a web framework which does not require you to be an expert in a multitude of concepts in order to take full advantage of its features. In this case, you should consider Javalin, a web framework written in Java and Kotlin which is redefining the meaning of ‘lightweight’.

    Javalin is a lightweight piece of code that runs on Jetty and offers exceptional performance. There is no need to implement interfaces or extend classes when using this library. Additionally, Javalin is highly compatible, allowing developers to use the same codebase to create applications in either Java or Kotlin.
  38. Silex

    Silex is now part of the growing list of Symfony-based frameworks. It is a lightweight PHP micro web framework, which allows for quick expansion of its features. There are two distinct versions available – a lightweight version which is suitable for creating basic web applications, and a more complex option that requires a routing engine.

    The ‘fat’ version of the Silex framework offers additional features such as database abstraction and a template engine. It is possible to extend the microframework to a full-stack MVC framework with the inclusion of these features.
  39. A Caliburn Micro

    Caliburn Micro is noteworthy, despite the announcement that it is no longer receiving active support from its creators. This lightweight framework was developed to standardise app creation for XAML-based environments. Although its scope was limited, it provided robust support for MV patterns, allowing developers to rapidly create high-quality and easily testable products.

Architectures for Mobile Application Development

  1. Ionic

    Ionic is widely recognised as one of the most powerful and versatile mobile app frameworks available. Its comprehensive set of tools enable developers to create native apps using a single codebase, which is guaranteed to be compatible across all devices. This includes access to a range of gestures, UI components and other tools. Furthermore, Ionic can also be used to create progressive web applications.

    Ionic’s compatibility with the leading front-end frameworks and its access to native device capabilities are two of its most remarkable features. It supports integration with Angular, React or Vue, and offers more than 120 native device plugins to enhance your applications.
  2. Xamarin

    Xamarin provides a comprehensive development experience compared to other mobile frameworks, and is based on C# for creating applications for Android, iOS, and the Universal Windows Platform. This robust framework offers full control over the project and guarantees native performance, thanks to Microsoft’s technologies.

    Xamarin enables the development of applications for multiple platforms using a single codebase, allowing for seamless integration with APIs. Furthermore, a large network of developers is available to provide support via the official forum and other resources.
  3. PhoneGap

    PhoneGap is a free and open-source solution to the commercially available mobile app framework Apache Cordova. It allows developers to create native apps for Android, iOS and Windows Phone using only HTML, CSS and JavaScript. This allows for the development of a single codebase that is compatible across all platforms, similar to Ionic.

    PhoneGap offers a comprehensive framework for creating hybrid apps, which can be compiled and stored in the cloud. In addition, the framework provides a mobile app for quickly testing how changes look, and is highly extensible via multiple plugins and third-party tools to support the development process.
  4. Purposely Native Reaction

    Users of the React framework report that it is highly versatile and robust, specifically designed for mobile developers. React Native combines the best features of React with native programming, resulting in a framework that can be used across multiple platforms, including Android, iOS, and the Universal Windows Platform (UWP).

    React Native enables developers to create a single codebase which can be easily shared across a range of platforms. This is thanks to its use of platform-specific components, as well as its React components which contain the necessary native code for interacting with APIs.
  5. Corona

    Corona is an increasingly popular cross-platform framework for developing games and applications which can be used across a range of mobile and desktop devices. The framework’s name is changing to Solar2D, although it is still often referred to by its original name. With Corona, you can create complex applications and games using the Lua programming language, along with over a thousand APIs and corresponding Corona Native extensions.

    Corona’s real-time simulator facilitates the visualisation of the impact of code changes in real-time. Its Live Build system allows for rapid updates to any active applications, with performance optimised for swift graphics processing, to name but a few of its many advantageous features.
  6. The jQuery Mobile Framework

    The jQuery Mobile framework has been designed to meet the needs of developers creating websites and applications for mobile and online platforms. It utilises an HTML5-based interface, enabling developers to create dynamic websites and applications that are optimised for the device being used by the user, across smartphones, tablets and computers. Furthermore, it enables developers to create a universal codebase that can be used across all platforms without any modification.

    Many developers are already familiar with jQuery, which serves as the foundation for jQuery Mobile. This makes it easier for those already familiar with its syntax to pick it up quickly. Furthermore, jQuery Mobile’s HTML5-based setup enables users to rapidly create unique page layouts without any coding. Pre-built UI widgets which are both touch-optimised and platform-independent are also available for use.
  7. Flutter

    Flutter may be a recent addition to the software development landscape, but it has already made a significant impact. Google’s backing of this framework, which comprises the Dart platform, the Flutter engine, the foundation library and a set of design-specific widgets, ensures its longevity.

    Flutter allows you to create web, desktop and mobile applications from the same source code, making the development process quicker and easier. Pre-made widgets can be modified to suit your individual needs, providing your application with native performance as Flutter’s code is compiled into native ARM machine code. This offers a great time saving and an improved user experience.
  8. Angular UI for Mobile Devices

    Mobile Angular UI is a unique framework. It is a mobile UI framework, similar to jQuery Mobile, but it also builds upon the core features of Bootstrap. This framework provides mobile-focused components such as switches, scrollable areas, and sidebars which are not available in Bootstrap.

    This framework does not require jQuery dependencies or bootstrap JavaScript, instead using Angular directives to make application development easier. Utilising the Bootstrap syntax allows for rapid and straightforward creation of applications.
  9. Titanium Appcelerator

    Appcelerator Titanium is a cross-platform mobile app development framework that eliminates the need for “hybrid compromises”. As with other frameworks, it uses a single codebase (JavaScript) to create cross-platform software.

    Titanium offers a distinct advantage in that applications can be developed entirely using JavaScript. Through the use of a connection layer, native UI elements can be integrated with JavaScript code to create a native experience without the need for version-specific customisation. Additionally, Hyperloop in Titanium provides access to Java, Objective-C, Swift and C# native APIs and libraries.
  10. Swiftic

    If you are looking for a straightforward approach to developing mobile apps for iOS and Android, consider Swiftic. This mobile framework provides all the essential features, such as push notifications and social network feeds, to ensure your app is equipped with the necessary functionalities.

    Due to the user-friendly nature of this framework, it does sacrifice some flexibility. As such, it may not be the most suitable choice for experienced programmers. However, novice mobile developers will find it provides a strong basis for creating enterprise-grade applications for businesses of all sizes.
  11. NativeScript

    NativeScript is a widely recognised JavaScript framework which enables the development of mobile applications for both Android and iOS devices. It is packed with a range of features that facilitate the integration of a user’s camera and contacts into the app.

    NativeScript prioritises efficient code usage, meaning it has two key features. Firstly, it enables the development of native user interfaces from a single source. Secondly, code can be reused across multiple applications.
  12. Plan of Attack 7

    It is possible that your project may require a robust development framework for mobile applications. Framework 7, a mobile and web app development tool, can assist you in meeting these needs. In addition, it can be used to create more advanced applications. Contrary to what one might expect, Framework 7 is often used for prototyping.

    Framework 7 offers a great deal of flexibility to developers, as it can be used with a wide range of plugins to work with JavaScript, HTML and CSS. Even more impressive is its built-in support for Vue and React, as well as the active development community which is constantly releasing new versions and updating the documentation.
  13. Rachet

    Regrettably, Ratchet, another JavaScript framework, is often overlooked by mobile developers. There is a great variety of frameworks available, which can lead to confusion. Nevertheless, Ratchet is a worthwhile framework to learn if you are looking to create mobile or online applications. This framework has been created by the same group that made Bootstrap, so you can be certain that it is of the highest standard.

    Ratchet is a front-end framework that enables users to create native-style mobile applications using JavaScript, HTML and CSS. It is simple to use either by combining different elements to start from scratch, or by using one of the many available templates as a starting point. The process of finalising an app is straightforward, and results can be seen quickly.

Tools for Building AI

  1. PyTorch

    If you are in search of a well-known machine learning framework, then PyTorch is the ideal choice for you. Its prominent popularity is attributed to its powerful features which make it easy to use, from the initial prototype stages to the final production. Additionally, there is a broad range of plugins, frameworks and library tools available to further expand its functionality.

    PyTorch is a popular choice amongst developers working in computer vision and natural language processing. It is an ideal choice for machine learning projects due to its cloud support, which allows for easy deployment and provides excellent scalability for both production and training.
  2. Libraries for Neural Networks

    Researchers and developers of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will find the Neural Network Libraries to be an invaluable deep learning framework. Due to its user-friendly nature, it has gained widespread praise from numerous developers. It enables the development of complex deep learning solutions with minimal coding effort, resulting in portable, cross-platform applications.

    This framework provides access to features such as dynamic computation graph support and multi-target device acceleration through the Neural Networks Libraries plugin. Additionally, it facilitates the addition of new functionality through a combination of a neat function abstraction and a code template generator.
  3. Apache MXNet Is an Open-Source Mesh Network.

    Apache MXNet is an important deep learning framework which has been designed to facilitate rapid model training, due to its scalability. Additionally, its support for multiple programming languages is an added benefit.

    This framework provides a comprehensive ecosystem of supporting tools and libraries, enabling expansion into areas such as computer vision, natural language processing, time series and more.
  4. ML.NET

    As a .NET developer, ML.NET provides an open-source platform for you to create machine learning solutions. To put it another way, C# and F# within the .NET environments enable you to incorporate machine learning capabilities into online, mobile, and desktop applications, as well as games and IoT systems.

    This framework offers a builder and Command Line Interface (CLI) that make it easy to create tailored models. Furthermore, Automated ML, a cutting-edge solution that utilises automation for accelerated and improved model development, is available. ML.NET may be integrated with other widely used ML frameworks to unlock further features and extend its usability.
  5. Infer.NET

    In order to utilise the same technology that powers Microsoft’s Office, Xbox and Azure, Infer.NET is the perfect solution. This technology is based on Bayesian inference in graphical models and probabilistic programming and can help with a variety of machine learning tasks such as data categorisation and clustering, as well as domain-specific issues.

    Infer.NET is an ideal platform for large-scale inference applications due to its ability to generate models into source code that can run without the original application. Furthermore, its customisable distributions, factors, operations and algorithms make it an even more powerful tool. Even without customisation, this framework offers an impressive array of capabilities.
  6. Accord.NET

    Despite the creator of Accord.NET announcing a few months ago that it could be the last update, users can still take advantage of the framework. Accord.NET has applications in areas such as machine learning, computer vision, and image processing.

    Accord.example NET’s apps and testing tools provide an excellent starting point for building models. The pre-existing examples and pattern-based design of the template methods make it easy to experiment with different learning algorithms and training strategies, enabling you to quickly identify the most effective solution for your needs.
  7. Chainer

    Chainer is a Python-based deep learning system, built on the foundations of NumPy and CuPy. It was the first to introduce the define-by-run strategy, although its influence is restricted to a specific field. The define-by-run approach used by Chainer enables the network to be determined during the training process, in contrast to the more traditional two-phase technique.

    Chainer’s integration of Python control flow instructions with backpropagation makes it an intuitive and straightforward tool to work with. This simplifies the process of working with the framework and reduces the complexity of debugging.
  8. Horovod

    Horovod is essential for accelerating the development of deep learning models. This deep learning training framework enables the execution of any training script on hundreds of GPUs, with compatibility for TensorFlow, Keras, PyTorch, and Apache MXNet. The most convenient aspect is that only a few lines of Python code are required for implementation.

    Deploying Horovod on any cloud platform (e.g. AWS or Azure) enables the growth of training. Running Horovod on top of Apache Spark enables the integration of training and processing into a single pipeline, resulting in time and effort savings.
  9. H2O Q

    Developing AI applications can be a complex process, particularly when they need to be interactive and visually appealing. However, using an application development framework such as H2O Q can simplify the task. This framework provides Python developers with the tools to quickly build AI applications using a selection of pre-made components.

    H2O Q offers a comprehensive range of pre-developed Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications that can be tailored to meet specific business requirements. This allows users to create bespoke solutions by combining existing components.

Methodologies for Testing

  1. Schematic of a Robot

    Robot Framework is an automation framework that enables the development of robotic process automation (RPA) solutions and the automation of testing. It is a keyword-driven framework with an approachable syntax that can be further extended with libraries written in Python and Java, allowing benefits to be gained even when not working on an acceptance test-driven development project.

    Robot Framework is an effective tool which could be further enhanced by combining it with other approaches. For the best results, it is advisable to use the Robot Framework’s own integrated development environment (RIDE).
  2. Gauge

    This test automation framework has been designed to meet the requirements of acceptance testing. It allows for the creation of test cases and scenarios written in Markdown, which significantly reduces the development time. Additionally, its refactoring capabilities allow for the re-use of specifications and the elimination of duplicate code.

    Gauge boasts impressive compatibility with other tools and automation drivers, plus it can be extended with plugins written in various languages, giving you the ability to incorporate additional drivers, data sources, IDEs and events. Furthermore, Gauge now features built-in parallelization capabilities, enabling you to significantly reduce the time it takes to run tests.
  3. Pytest

    Pytest is a mature and full-featured Python testing tool, which boasts a simple interface optimised for writing small tests. However, this framework is also beneficial for projects of any size, as it is capable of scaling up tests quickly and supporting functional testing.

    Pytest offers a number of useful features, such as autodiscovery of test modules and functions, as well as modular fixtures to help manage test resources. Additionally, it supports a wide range of add-ons which can extend its capabilities.
  4. Jest

    Jest is renowned among JavaScript testing frameworks for its straightforward setup and user-friendly interface. It is suited to a variety of front-end frameworks, such as React, Angular, Vue, TypeScript and more, making it a versatile choice for projects. However, this merely hints at the vast potential of this powerful framework.

    Jest tests are all isolated, allowing for improved functionality and increased efficiency. Furthermore, with the feature-rich API, tests can be created quickly, resulting in improved results and reduced development time.
  5. Mocha

    Mocha is a JavaScript testing framework compatible with Node.js applications. This framework facilitates the creation of asynchronous tests which are executed sequentially, resulting in accurate results and the proper mapping of exceptions. Furthermore, Mocha offers strong support for assertion libraries such as should.js, express.js, and better-assert.

    Mocha has a number of impressive features built-in, such as the ability to run in the browser, nine different reporters to provide comprehensive reporting and the option to run parallel tests which, in many cases, can deliver significant performance gains with no additional configuration.
  6. Jasmine

    Jasmine is a behaviour-driven testing framework designed specifically for use with JavaScript code. With its simple, straightforward syntax and its extensive collection of built-in capabilities, it makes it easy to test programs, offering a level of functionality that is difficult to find in other frameworks in such a short amount of time.

    Jasmine is renowned for its extraordinary speed, as it does not rely on any external factors and can execute tests in both the browser and Node.js without the need for additional tools, which makes it a great time saver.
  7. Nightwatch

    Nightwatch is an extensive testing framework for Node.js developers, enabling them to conveniently test any aspect of their web applications or websites. It offers an easy-to-use syntax, making the process of writing tests in JavaScript straightforward and efficient.

    Nightwatch, similar to the other frameworks on this list, can be customised by adding new commands and assertions to accomplish more sophisticated tasks. The real benefit of this framework, however, is its command-line test runner and the capacity to combine sequential and parallel tests into build procedures. Moreover, the Nightwatch team is working tirelessly on their own cloud testing platform, which, once it goes live, will significantly hasten the process of executing tests.
  8. Protractor

    Protractor is an excellent tool for conducting end-to-end testing on Angular applications. It utilises WebDriverJs, which enables the simulation of real-world browser interactions using native events and drivers that are specific to each browser. This allows for more accurate reporting of results.

    Automatic waiting, a useful feature available in Protractor which allows tests to be executed when pending tasks are finished, helps to ensure that tests and websites are kept synchronised. Protractor alleviates the need to worry about this.
  9. Cypress

    Cypress is a comprehensive testing framework that combines mocking and stubbing into a single framework. It is worth exploring, as it promises to support “everything that runs in a browser” quickly and efficiently. Although it may not always deliver on its promises, it is still a great option.

    Due to its time-travelling capabilities, which enable you to analyse every stage of your process, this tool is highly advantageous. Furthermore, it offers excellent debugging facilities, so you are able to use existing tools such as Chrome’s DevTools to identify and resolve any issues you experience. Additionally, the automated waiting function and real-time reloads make it simple to quickly apply changes to your tests.
  10. TestProject

    TestProject is a comprehensive framework which provides a range of tools for automating the testing of online and mobile applications. The framework includes an in-browser recorder, allowing users to quickly and easily create automated tests according to their own requirements.

    Once you have created your tests, you can use the Test Editor to customise them to your needs. This includes adding comments, setting types, selecting failure behaviour and establishing timeouts. You can then view the detailed information collected from your tests in TestProject’s Test Analytics area.
  11. Galen’s Schematic

    In order to assess the responsiveness of a website’s appearance and functionality, the Java-based Galen Framework can be utilised. Based on the Selenium platform, it can be executed in a grid environment to determine cross-browser compatibility. A particular syntax and some fundamental principles enable you to detail your layout and have the Galen Framework inspect the positioning of elements in relation to each other.

    Galen Framework enables you to run tests on your website across various browser widths, which is beneficial due to the prevalence of responsive websites. Therefore, you need only adjust a few settings to assess how your website responds to different display sizes.
  12. WebDriverIO

    WebDriverIO is a Node.js-based framework, designed for automating browser and mobile testing, which enables the production of tests that are highly compatible across different browsers. It is a powerful framework that can be easily adapted to suit any testing requirement, thanks to the extensive selection of plugins created by an engaged community. Furthermore, it can be further enhanced by the addition of custom utility functions and specific command combinations.

    WebDriverIO is compatible with a range of popular web frameworks, enabling it to be used with React, Angular and Vue projects without difficulty. Additionally, it is compatible with both Apple and Google’s mobile operating systems. The configuration tool makes it simple to generate a config file quickly, meaning testing can be initiated in a matter of minutes.
  13. OpenTest

    OpenTest might be an option if the other test automation frameworks discussed do not meet your needs. This framework is designed for automating testing for web, mobile, and API applications, and is particularly useful for those new to test engineering as it is easy to set up, whilst still being highly scalable and extensible.

    OpenTest is a keyword-driven solution which allows you to create tests that are straightforward and easily updated. This approach hides the complexity of the underlying keywords, simplifying the task of test creation and enabling you to focus on the outcomes of your tests. While some customisation is lost, the rapid development of a wide range of automated tests is provided for your convenience.
  14. Citrus

    Citrus is an enterprise integration testing and test automation platform that allows users to create complete test suites for automated execution. This platform helps maintain the highest quality standards of products with the implementation of tests in any continuous integration system.

    This robust framework gives you control over the entire testing process by allowing you to define validation and emulation control messages for interface partners. Citrus offers XML and cross-editor compatibility, making it easy to use. Additionally, its core functionality can be extended through a wide range of add-ons, and you can even further customise it by creating your own special functions and testing activities.
  15. Karate

    Karate is an all-in-one framework for API test automation, mocking and performance testing, allowing you to maximise productivity by combining API and UI test automation into a single script, with a straightforward syntax. To further increase speed, tests can be run in parallel, which is especially beneficial when assessing HTTP APIs.

    For those who have no prior experience in coding but are interested in starting a martial art, karate is an excellent option. Tests that are driven by data can be developed using either JSON or CSV inputs, and it comes with straightforward yet appropriate assets for dealing with large responses. It performs excellently in general, but particularly stands out when testing APIs.

Diverse Structures

  1. Scrapy

    Scrapy is a web crawling platform which can be used to extract data from webpages or APIs. It offers a straightforward way of assigning tasks to a group of spiders and allowing them to do the hard work. Reusing code with Scrapy is possible, plus the included web-crawling shell provides an opportunity to test instructions in a realistic environment.
  2. Truffle

    The Truffle framework makes it easy to create, test, and deploy smart contracts and dApps on the Ethereum network. The Truffle, Ganache, and Drizzle components provide a comprehensive solution for the development of decentralised applications. Firstly, the Ethereum Virtual Machine is necessary to construct dApps. Secondly, Ganache allows developers to develop and test smart contracts and decentralised applications. Finally, Drizzle synchronises data as a front-end development library.
  3. Embark

    Embark is a platform designed to facilitate the development, testing and deployment of smart contracts and distributed applications. It offers an accessible alternative to Truffle and allows for greater flexibility in the management and implementation of smart contracts. Moreover, this framework provides a high degree of customisability, enabling users to decide how deeply they wish to configure the setup.
  4. Etherlime

    Etherlime is an Ethereum framework that facilitates the design and deployment of blockchain applications. Its creators understand the importance of being verbose in order to give users a comprehensive understanding of the deployment process. Furthermore, Etherlime offers reliable performance due to its foundation on ethers.js.
  5. A Contracting Platform Using OpenZeppelin

    OpenZeppelin Contracts is a blockchain framework which enables developers to construct secure smart contracts through the use of trustworthy libraries and widely used implementations of ERC standards. It provides heightened levels of security, a modular approach to developing robust code, and re-usable Solidity components which enable the design of complex systems and tailor-made contracts.
  6. Brownie

    Brownie is a Python-based tool that utilises Pytest to simplify the process of developing tests for the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Furthermore, it provides comprehensive debugging features to assist in creating high-quality work.
  7. Make an Ethereum-Based App

    Create Eth App is a command-line framework designed to simplify the process of creating Ethereum-based applications. It does this by executing a small number of commands and using a consistent boilerplate structure. The team behind it believes that providing additional front-end components will help newcomers gain a better understanding of blockchain technology. That is the primary aim of Create Eth App.
  8. Exonum

    Exonum is a blockchain architecture that focuses on the security, speed and efficiency of smart contracts. It can be used to create and manage smart contracts on a private blockchain using languages such as Rust and Java, providing rapid results. Additionally, if your project requires a token or cryptocurrency, Exonum can be used to create one.
  9. Hyperledger

    Hyperledger is not a framework in its own right, but rather it incorporates a range of recognised blockchain frameworks and associated tools. Hyperledger’s many frameworks, such as Fabric, Iroha, Sawtooth and Besu, each possess their own particular applications in the blockchain domain.
  10. Corda

    Corda is a unique blockchain platform which is driven by commercial interests. It allows the development of decentralised applications, also known as ‘CordApps’, that enable businesses to securely transact through the use of smart contracts. The ambition is to create dependable and high-performance dApps that can optimise corporate operations.
  11. MultiChain

    MultiChain is a platform designed to make creating and deploying your own private blockchain straightforward. It offers a simple two-step procedure to get started, allowing you to issue assets and conduct transactions easily. Furthermore, the platform can be tailored to fit your specific security requirements.
  12. Meteor

    The Meteor framework, written in JavaScript, facilitates web, mobile, and desktop development using familiar tools. This allows developers to concentrate on the unique aspects of their project while combining components they are already familiar with. Furthermore, an integrated JavaScript stack enables developers to create applications which are more lightweight and compatible across multiple platforms.
  13. User Interface for the Onsen

    The Onsen UI framework enables the development of Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) and hybrid applications with a native look and feel. By writing code in JavaScript, it is possible to serve customers on both iOS and Android with the same codebase, as the framework contains numerous components which automatically adjust their appearance based on the platform on which the app is being viewed.
  14. SiteWhere

    Utilise SiteWhere, a flexible Java-based platform, to create your own Internet of Things (IoT) applications for a range of products, from wearables to home automation devices. This framework can easily be integrated into the company’s platform, providing you with access to data that will inform your future product roadmap.
  15. Electron

    Electron is a toolkit designed to facilitate the development of desktop graphical user interfaces using common web technologies, such as JavaScript, HTML and CSS. Electron simplifies the process of creating applications by providing a straightforward environment to build in. As Electron is based on Chromium, it offers a faster development time, but with increased levels of effort required.
  16. Svelte

    Compared to other JavaScript frameworks, Svelte is becoming increasingly popular due to its focus on a compile step rather than the browser-based approach used by React and Vue. Svelte generates code to keep the DOM up to date with any state changes, resulting in improved loading and runtime efficiency with smaller file sizes.
  17. Aurelia

    Aurelia is an innovative JavaScript client framework, offering a modular approach to web and mobile app development. By combining the different components, developers can create powerful applications quickly and efficiently, all while providing the flexibility to customise to meet individual requirements.
  18. Mithril

    Mithril is a JavaScript framework that is highly regarded for its capabilities in creating robust Single Page Applications. It is a microframework, making it straightforward to write code for. Furthermore, Mithril provides built-in routing and XHR tools which are simple enough for beginners to utilise effectively within an hour.
  19. Bulma

    Bulma is an unconventional framework that generates a single CSS file, which can be used as-is or customised to suit your requirements. Its primary objective is to reduce the need to use JavaScript when working on the styling layer of your logic.
  20. Microdot

    Microdot is a .NET framework that facilitates the development of high quality microservices. The framework’s distributed system configuration enables developers to focus on the core functionality of the service, whilst reducing time to market. Furthermore, Microdot has a service container and hierarchical configuration system that supports change detection, and a wide range of microservice patterns.
  21. Rapidoid

    Rapidoid, a contemporary Java web framework and application container, is renowned for its speed, productivity and performance. It features a range of modules, such as a network protocol framework, REST API framework, web GUI components module and a template engine module.
  22. Ktor

    Ktor is a Kotlin-based, asynchronous framework for developing microservices and web applications. It offers a flexible architecture that enables customisation to include any desired features through the integration of additional components into the pipeline. Furthermore, the use of Kotlin coroutines and the non-blocking development methodology allows for the creation of highly scalable applications.
  23. Scalatra

    Scalatra is a web development microframework that combines the robust capabilities of the Java Virtual Machine with the concise development style of Scala, enabling developers to quickly create websites and APIs. Additionally, Scalatra is an ideal backend companion to client-side frameworks such as Ember and Angular.
  24. Toolatra

    Toolatra is a micro web framework inspired by Sinatra, allowing developers to create HTTP Tcl applications. It comes complete with a web server, token management and verification module, as well as a templating and layout engine. Whilst basic in its functionality, it offers a reliable and efficient solution.

The Constantly Changing Framework Universe

It is unsurprising that, with such a large variety of programming languages available, only a few frameworks are widely recognized and used. This is due to the fact that developers often create frameworks to standardize and simplify common development processes for each language, discipline, and set of challenges.

It is evident that this collection lacks a framework. As demonstrated, it is difficult to provide a comprehensive overview of all frameworks due to new ones constantly emerging, whilst existing ones can be subject to significant changes, mergers or even become obsolete. The range of options presented here should encourage further exploration of frameworks.

As a developer, you may regularly make use of frameworks. This list has been provided to assist you in assessing your options and making the most suitable choice for your development project.

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