The Best One Hundred Development Tools

To assess the most appropriate languages for programming, considering the top 100 is crucial. However, it is equally important to evaluate the top 100 frameworks for building software. In the modern era of software development, frameworks play an essential role, and their rise has been instrumental in the prosperity of the industry.

We have prepared a catalogue of the widely-used software frameworks along with a concise summary of each one. We acknowledge that this may spark conflicting opinions as certain individuals might believe that we have disregarded a crucial framework or that all the mentioned frameworks may not meet the qualifications. It is feasible that we might have missed out on a prevalent framework as well.

It is imperative to note that our intention was not to provide an all-inclusive directory of feasible subjects. To clarify, we wanted to revisit the numerous frameworks that we utilize in our development procedures here at Works. Furthermore, the sequence of the frameworks listed does not signify their significance or acceptance. We jotted down the information as we recalled it.

Starting with the Basics, What is a “Software Development Framework”?

To put simply, a framework refers to a set of guidelines that establish a foundation for software development. It enforces a specific software design philosophy and an architectural pattern which permits software developers to expand their projects. Imposing structure is advantageous as it maintains consistency and quality in the development cycle.

Certainly, frameworks are advantageous in the development process as they offer ready-to-go components such as classes and functions. These components help to streamline conventional software activities such as input processing and system interaction. Consequently, programmers can concentrate on creating new features for their applications, eliminating the need to re-create code that has already been written. Eventually, this accelerates and optimises the development process.

What Constitutes a Framework?

There are a few common features in all frameworks, the most significant being the built-in logic that dictates how different application components interact. This fundamental architecture is present in all frameworks, offering a consistent structure to build upon.

As previously mentioned, the fundamental architecture of the framework is both its fundamental necessity and main advantage. Besides, the framework offers the following supplementary benefits:

  • Standard Functionality
  • Integrated Responses to Conventional Development Tasks and Procedures
  • Code Architecture
  • Progress Theories

Given the information provided, you might question whether a framework is the same as a library. The answer is no. Comparable to a framework, libraries offer pre-written functionality and code architecture, although developers only use them when they choose to (since they are not obligatory).

Selecting a Development Framework

Upon perusing the list of the top 100 development frameworks, it becomes apparent that there is a multitude of frameworks that seem to offer the same functions for comparable purposes. This could be challenging in terms of determining which framework to select.

Choosing the appropriate framework can be a challenging task when they all satisfy the same fundamental requirements. The most suitable option is contingent on the kind of project you are creating – web development, data science, mobile development, etc. To limit your options, it’s crucial to contemplate your development team’s proficiency. If your team has proficiency in Python, then it’s recommendable to prefer a Python framework.

This may assist you in limiting your options, but it won’t necessarily make it less challenging to make a concluding decision. What is the most prudent approach? You could try to find analogous projects and examine the frameworks that the developers employed to construct them. This will give you a more comprehensive idea of what you can achieve with a particular framework and help you determine if it is appropriate for your needs.

Now that we have covered the essential considerations, we can move forward to the list. The frameworks have been segregated into subsets based on their appropriate tasks, with the objective of producing a structured overview.

Frameworks for Web Applications

  1. Angular

    Angular is a widely utilised web development framework, created by Google and constructed on TypeScript. It follows the MVC pattern, enabling swift and straightforward development of applications with varying degrees of complexity – from the most basic to the most intricate, with millions of users.

    Angular is built on the web components standard, which offers flexibility, scalability, and modularity to reuse individual HTML elements. Furthermore, Angular being an open-source technology allows you the freedom to incorporate it into your projects, as well as the support of a vast community with extensive resources.

    Those who seek better performance should consider Microsoft’s offerings. The tech leader provides two exceptional web development frameworks: ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core. The former is an excellent option to expand .NET’s basic capabilities with tools and packages that elevate web development abilities, featuring code completion, multi-factor authentication, and web-page template syntax.

    ASP.NET Core is a revamping of the reclusive Windows-only versions of ASP.NET, now accessible as an open-source solution. This framework is perfect for web developers constructing modern web applications and services, and it works well with Windows, Linux, macOS, or Docker.
  3. Express

    Express is a straightforward and open-ended framework that constitutes the MEAN stack – popularly used for Node.js due to its simplicity and efficiency with plug-ins. Additionally, its exceptional performance makes it an excellent choice among frameworks.

    Express is well-regarded for its inclusive range of features and extensive collection of HTTP utility methods, making it an ideal option for two main objectives. Firstly, Express is preferred for building web and mobile applications. Secondly, it is a valuable resource for anyone developing robust APIs as it simplifies and speeds up the process.
  4. Vue

    Vue is a nimble JavaScript framework that possesses high effectiveness. Its progressive nature enables it to be utilised in small applications or on the View layer of the MVC. Its simplicity further allows it to be seamlessly integrated with other libraries and projects, augmenting its worth.

    Vue is a remarkable tool for creating user interfaces. Nonetheless, when combined with the most recent development resources and tools, it can be employed to create extensively sophisticated single-page applications.
  5. Spring

    Since its initial release in 2003, Spring has rapidly become a favoured option for its ability to create proficient, lightweight, and reusable code. While it is not a conventional web framework, its POJO development style can be leveraged to create almost anything, thus rendering it suitable for building web applications on the Java EE platform.

    The Spring framework features its own Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture to overcome the deficiencies of existing popular alternatives, making it a sought-after choice for web development.
  6. Django

    Django brands itself as the “web framework for perfectionists with deadlines” owing to its flexible abilities for expeditious development cycles. The high-level framework of Python allows for component reuse, reducing the amount of code written with its focus on the “don’t repeat yourself” (DRY) philosophy.

    Due to its use of Python, one of the most popular programming languages, and its enhanced security features from the outset, Django has gained significant traction among developers. It is an immensely flexible and scalable framework that allows for building web applications of any complexity quickly and easily.
  7. Flask

    Flask is another frequently used Python framework, which takes a distinct approach to Django. It provides alternatives instead of enforcing dependencies or project structures, giving developers the freedom to choose the tools and libraries they want for their projects and applications.

    One hallmark of a microframework is that it does not have pre-built libraries for typical features, and Flask fits the description. For some developers, the benefits of having a lightweight, compact, and easily-managed framework can be a critical aspect when making a decision.
  8. Laravel

    Laravel has undoubtedly earned its reputation as a top-of-the-range PHP framework for web developers. Leveraging the strengths of other popular frameworks such as Rails and Sinatra, Laravel has crafted a distinctive and elegant syntax that is both commanding and user-friendly. Built on Symfony, Laravel is a Model-View-Controller framework that provides an extensive array of tools to create sophisticated and scalable applications.

    With its pre-installed features for authentication, caching, sessions, and routing, Laravel is capable of significantly reducing the complexity of web development. Furthermore, it offers integrated unit testing support, instilling confidence that applications are equipped for any situation.
  9. Rails – A Ruby Framework

    This widely adopted Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework for server-side web development is commonly known as RoR or Rails. It is an industry-leading framework that pioneered features such as migrations and automated database table generation.

    For the creation of customised platforms, e-commerce sites, SaaS systems, and APIs, a multitude of web developers resort to Rails. This popularity stems from the framework’s object-oriented architecture, emphasis on data security, integration of tools, and potential for creativity.
  10. Symfony

    To the Symfony community, the framework is more than just a web application framework. Symfony is not just a framework, a philosophy, or a community – it is also a collection of PHP components. The defining feature of Symfony is the components on which it is based – reusable, decoupled components that can be used to build applications.

    Symfony is a reliable assortment of PHP components that enable the development of efficient applications and websites. It promotes the construction of maintainable and extensible code.
  11. Gatsby

    Gatsby has been likened to site generators by some, and whilst there is an element of truth to this, we have chosen to adopt Gatsby as it more closely resembles a modern frontend framework. With a range of plugins for integrating popular services and ‘recipes’ to automate web-based tasks, Gatsby, powered by React, provides all the necessary tools to create advanced websites.

    Gatsby is relatively easy to use; once your website code is complete, it is converted into a single HTML file, ready to be deployed to a server. Additionally, Gatsby’s pre-set parameters offer advantages such as fast page loading speeds, server-side rendering, data prefetching, and more.
  12. Sinatra

    Ruby professionals may contend that Rails is the superior framework, but Sinatra is also a viable option to consider when developing web projects in Ruby. Although it may appear more like a library than a framework, Sinatra can still be classified as a framework
  13. CakePHP

    CakePHP is frequently regarded as a derivative of Ruby on Rails, as it is built on the same principles. It employs the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and includes the necessary tools for developing web applications, such as database access, authentication, and caching.

    CakePHP’s code generation and scaffolding features make it a great choice for rapidly creating prototypes. With its established set of rules, it can guide developers throughout the development process, ensuring the creation of a highly performant and secure solution.
  14. Horde

    Horde may not be the most advanced framework for software development, but it still has its merits. Authentication, compression, connection tracking, and MIME handling are just a few of the features this PHP-based framework offers to facilitate fast web development.

    Horde is an especially fitting choice for groupware projects, such as an integrated inbox, calendar, and task manager, as it presents a more comprehensive codebase than other available frameworks. We highly recommend acquainting oneself with its features.
  15. Yii

    Yii is a potent and efficient PHP framework for modern web application development. It adheres to the MVC architecture and delivers an array of features for full-stack development, including multi-tier caching, RESTful API support, and query builders. Yii aims to achieve high performance through its use of compact, well-structured syntax.

    Yii is an incredibly versatile framework, capable of developing a wide range of PHP programs. It is especially beneficial for developing enterprise-level applications, such as web portals, online shops, and content management systems.
  16. Zend

    Zend (or ZF) is a vast assortment of PHP packages that can be deployed with the aid of Composer, a package management system. It offers a broad range of language functionalities and includes the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture for constructing web applications using object-oriented programming principles.

    Zend is a potent and dependable framework, designed for enterprise-level applications. Its high-performance capabilities enable confident execution of high-use operations, while its advanced security features ensure a secure environment.
  17. Zikula

    Zikula is a potent PHP web development framework designed to create collaborative websites and web applications that emphasize user interaction and security. It is built on the trustworthy and extensible Symfony, and employs object-oriented and modular design principles.

    There are various extensions available, enabling the creation of anything from uncomplicated one-page sites to sophisticated online apps. By leveraging Zikula, you can enjoy features such as categorization, events and AJAX support, which help save time.
  18. Bootstrap

    Bootstrap is perceived by many as the premier mobile-first, frontend web development framework, constructed from HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Its flexibility and potency make it accessible to any user, thanks to its user-friendly interface and extensive libraries of pre-made templates and features, such as a flexible grid system and robust JavaScript plugins.

    Bootstrap simplifies the process of creating informative web pages, as it ensures consistent display across various web browsers. Additionally, its layout components can be tailored to suit individual requirements.
  19. Grails

    Grails is a web application development framework based on Apache Groovy (and, consequently, Java), which seeks to provide developers with an environment that reduces decision-making whilst still allowing for customisation. It achieves this by adhering to convention-over-configuration principles and opinionated APIs with appropriate defaults.

    Grails is compatible with the Java programming language, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and Java Enterprise Edition (EE) containers, and may be further expanded via plugins. It enables the development of REST APIs and web applications with a JavaScript frontend, and employs application profiles.
  20. Play

    Play is a web application framework for Java and Scala, which integrates APIs and components to simplify online application development. As a full-stack framework, it offers a comprehensive range of features for creating projects, including a routing system, an integrated HTTP server, and support for form handling. It also includes hot reloading, enabling immediate preview of code changes.

    Play’s architecture is lightweight, stateless, and web-friendly, which is one of the reasons behind its applications’ minimal resource usage. Its reactive approach enables applications to scale horizontally and vertically.
  21. Web2py

    Web2py is a Python-based web application framework that’s easy-to-use, originally intended as an educational tool. Despite its evolution, it remains user-friendly and requires no project-level configuration files. With its emphasis on convention over configuration, Web2py is an excellent option for those seeking an efficient development framework.

    Web2py is incredibly handy, enabling developers to create robust and secure online applications that can be swiftly linked to a database. It also includes a web-based integrated development environment (IDE), allowing developers worldwide to use the framework and its tools to construct, deploy, and manage their projects.
  22. Lumen

    Lumen‘s website warmly welcomes visitors with the assurance that this small web framework is “definitely Laravel” and “delightfully straightforward”. Laravel’s microservices and rapid APIs can be developed with ease using this PHP framework, making it an ideal choice.

    In addition, Lumen provides ample capacity to meet your development needs, enabling you to use Laravel functionalities like caching, routing, and the service container with minimal setup. The best part is that you can easily transfer your Lumen project to a larger Laravel setup and continue development.
  23. TurboGears

    TurboGears is a Python web framework that adheres to the Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm. It was initially developed as a microframework but can be scaled up to meet the requirements of more intricate projects. This flexibility enables users to utilise it for both fundamental and advanced tasks.

    TurboGears provides a modular application framework and WSGI components, in addition to a configurable Object Relational Mapper (ORM) and support for various data exchange formats. Its template structure is developer-friendly, making it a great option for anyone working on a project.
  24. Phalcon

    Phalcon is an MVC-based PHP web framework that functions as a web server plugin. This offers numerous benefits, including enhanced speed, reduced resource usage, and the capability to handle a high number of HTTP requests simultaneously. As a result, Phalcon is an ideal choice for demanding projects that require optimal performance.

    It isn’t necessary to have knowledge of C to use this full-stack framework. The Phalcon namespaces provide the interface to the PHP classes and can be used immediately. In addition, due to its loosely coupled structure, only the necessary components will be employed. This helps reduce redundant code and enhance the application’s performance.
  25. FuelPHP

    FuelPHP was established with the goal of providing a more robust option to existing PHP web application frameworks. To achieve this, the project relies heavily on its contributors who collaborate to report issues and suggest new features.

    FuelPHP is an MVC framework that fully supports HMVC, making it simpler to “widgetise” content structures. This can save time by eliminating the need to create multiple copies of layouts or widgets to display the same content in different locations.
  26. Spark

    Spark, a lightweight microframework for developing Java and Kotlin web applications, aims to speed up development by providing expressive syntax that reduces the required code. Spark enables users to harness the power of the JVM without necessitating intricate code.

    Spark is an excellent option for microservices as it enables the creation of REST APIs that can output JSON with just a few lines of code. It also has support for template engines, which facilitate the swift development of both backend and frontend applications.
  27. Grok

    Grok is a Python web application framework that offers a powerful suite of libraries from the Zope Toolkit. This makes Grok suitable for developers of every level, allowing them to undertake projects of any size or complexity.

    Grok delivers a collection of components that can be used to swiftly construct web applications without having to modify configuration files or embark on lengthy development processes.
  28. Mojolicious

    Mojolicious is a relatively recent Perl-based web application framework developed by the same team that created Catalyst, which is why they share many similarities. The aim was to create a framework that could handle both basic and advanced web applications drawing upon their experience with Catalyst.

    Using Mojolicious produces clear results: it’s a real-time framework that enables the creation of comprehensive MVC web applications from single-file prototypes. It offers several practical components such as routes, commands, plugins, templates, testing frameworks, and top-notch Unicode support. Furthermore, other users can extend its functionality with add-ons they’ve developed.
  29. Slim Architecture

    The Fat-Free Framework is a PHP microframework designed to accelerate the development of dynamic web applications. It provides a comprehensive set of tools, a stable code base, and an efficient software development approach, making it an excellent choice for those who want to get started quickly without encountering complex setup or directory structures.

    Despite being a microframework, the fat-free framework is powerful and includes a multiprotocol caching engine, URL routing, built-in code highlighting, and other features.
  30. Wicket

    Wicket is a server-side web application framework ideal for developing Java code with HTML content. Its component-based approach, which organizes applications as trees of components and patterns them in a stateful manner, similar to Swing, is a significant advantage. It also features support for multiple tabs and windows, encapsulation, inheritance, events in components, and a selection of Ajax components.

    Wicket is a versatile platform that can be employed to create various websites and applications. Moreover, its CSP support and multiple security features ensure that users’ data is secure.
  31. Yesod

    Yesod is widely regarded as the most popular Haskell web framework. Its concise syntax and domain-specific languages are both straightforward and precise, allowing developers to create high-performance, type-safe web applications with minimal code, reducing the risk of runtime errors.

    Yesod is renowned for its ability to segregate functionality into specialized libraries, giving users the flexibility to choose the library of features that best suits the project they are working on, such as forms, HTML rendering, databases, and more.
  32. For those familiar with Sencha Ext JS

    This powerful JavaScript framework, previously known as Sencha Touch, empowers users to create cross-platform web and mobile applications for a variety of devices by granting access to over 140 individual components that can be combined to speed up data-intensive application development.

    Sencha Ext JS provides several structures, including layouts, grids, charts, D3 visualizations, and analytical algorithms, which simplify the process by allowing quick drag and drop of elements without requiring extensive coding. This framework offers flexibility, enabling users to have full control over their project and make modifications or include additional code as required.
  33. Nuxt.js

    Nuxt.js is marketed as “the meta-framework for universal apps,” indicating its potential for utilising Vue.js single-file components with the web application framework to generate web views written in JavaScript. Achieving a significant advantage can be an intimidating task, but Nuxt.js makes it simple for the development team to do so by enabling them to create the user interface in isolation and save both time and effort.

    The utilization of the server’s cache of pre-rendered components will significantly reduce the time required to reach the interactive portion of the application, making it a challenging task to complete. Nevertheless, Nuxt.js simplifies it for the development team so that they can achieve a significant advantage.
  34. Phoenix

    It is encouraging to observe the development of frameworks for less popular languages, like Elixir. Phoenix is an excellent instance of an Elixir MVC web framework that empowers developers to create dynamic, interactive, and scalable web applications.

    Phoenix’s primary goal is to simplify programming by focusing on fundamental operations. Additionally, it benefits from the Erlang VM’s ability to manage large numbers of connections and comes equipped with a built-in dashboard that displays real-time statistics.
  35. CodeIgniter

    Experienced PHP programmers frequently recommend CodeIgniter for its reputation for speed and performance. Although it does not necessitate adherence to the MVC paradigm, which left some developers feeling that CodeIgniter does not qualify as a framework, it is a critical tool for anyone seeking to employ PHP to create dynamic websites.

    CodeIgniter’s “near-zero-configuration” approach and built-in security features make it resilient to common online vulnerabilities. This implies that most of its setup is automatically implemented, although it is important to note that there is still some control over this.
  36. PHPixie

    Originally a microframework, PHPixie has evolved into a comprehensive full-stack PHP framework while maintaining its speedy performance. Its stringent design avoids anti-patterns, ensuring that any code created with PHPixie is straightforward to understand, test, and maintain.

    Developers who prefer an organized approach to coding and the ability to create once and use multiple times will benefit from PHPixie. The PHPixie package includes the Composer tool, which enables code to be packaged into separate bundles, making it more convenient. Furthermore, this framework is advantageous because it is compatible with MongoDB and includes robust security measures.
  37. Javalin

    If you’re searching for a web framework that doesn’t demand expertise in a variety of concepts to take full advantage of its capabilities, consider Javalin. Javalin is a Java and Kotlin web framework that is redefining the concept of “lightweight.”

    Javalin is a lightweight code segment that runs on Jetty and delivers exceptional performance. The library doesn’t require the implementation of interfaces or extension of classes, improving its simplicity. Additionally, Javalin is highly compatible, enabling developers to use the same codebase to create applications in either Java or Kotlin.
  38. Silex

    Silex has recently become part of the growing list of Symfony-based frameworks. It is a lightweight PHP micro web framework that offers the capability for quick expansion of its features. There are two distinct versions available, a lightweight option appropriate for developing basic web applications and a more complex option that requires a routing engine.

    The ‘fat’ version of Silex offers additional features such as database abstraction and a template engine. With these features, the microframework can be extended to a full-stack MVC framework.
  39. Caliburn Micro

    Caliburn Micro is notable, even though its creators have announced that it will no longer receive active support. This lightweight framework was created to standardize the creation of XAML-based apps. Despite its limited scope, it provides robust support for MV patterns, allowing developers to swiftly create high-quality and easily testable products.

Approaches to Designing Mobile Applications

  1. Ionic

    Ionic is well-regarded as one of the most potent and flexible mobile app frameworks currently available. Its comprehensive toolset empowers developers to create native apps using a single codebase that is compatible with all devices, including access to a range of gestures, UI components, and other tools. Moreover, Ionic is compatible with the primary front-end frameworks and offers access to over 120 native device plugins to enhance your applications.

    Ionic’s access to native device capabilities and compatibility with top front-end frameworks are two of its most notable features. It supports integration with Angular, React, or Vue, and provides more than 120 plugins to enhance the functionality of your applications.
  2. Xamarin

    Xamarin delivers a comprehensive development experience compared to other mobile frameworks as it is based on C# and enables the creation of applications for Android, iOS, and the Universal Windows Platform. This powerful framework provides complete control over the project and ensures native performance, thanks to Microsoft’s technologies.

    Xamarin empowers the development of applications for multiple platforms using one codebase, allowing for seamless integration with APIs. Additionally, a vast developer community is available to provide support through the official forum and other resources.
  3. PhoneGap

    PhoneGap is a free and open-source alternative to the commercially available mobile app framework Apache Cordova. It enables developers to create native apps for Android, iOS, and Windows Phone using only HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, allowing for the creation of a single codebase that is compatible across all platforms, similar to Ionic.

    PhoneGap delivers a comprehensive framework for creating hybrid apps, which can be compiled and stored in the cloud. Additionally, the framework provides a mobile app for quickly testing changes, and is highly extensible via multiple plugins and third-party tools to facilitate the development process.
  4. React Native

    React Native is a highly versatile and robust framework designed specifically for mobile developers. Users of the React framework report that it is versatile and robust. React Native combines the best features of React with native programming, resulting in a framework that can be used across multiple platforms, including Android, iOS, and the Universal Windows Platform (UWP).

    React Native empowers the creation of a single codebase which can be easily shared among a wide range of platforms. This is possible thanks to its utilization of platform-specific components, as well as its React components, which contain the necessary native code for interacting with APIs.
  5. Corona (now Solar2D)

    Corona is a cross-platform framework that is increasingly popular for the development of games and applications that can be used across a variety of mobile and desktop devices. Although the framework’s name is changing to Solar2D, it is still frequently referred to by its original name. With Corona, complex applications and games can be created using the Lua programming language, along with over a thousand APIs and corresponding Corona Native extensions.

    Corona’s real-time simulator makes it easy to see the impact of code changes as they occur. Its Live Build system allows for fast updates to any active applications, with optimized graphics processing performance, among numerous other advantageous features.
  6. The jQuery Mobile Framework

    The jQuery Mobile framework has been specifically created to cater to the needs of developers who are developing websites and applications for mobile and online platforms. It utilizes an HTML5-based interface, which allows developers to create dynamic websites and applications that are optimized for the device being used by the user, across smartphones, tablets, and computers. Additionally, jQuery Mobile enables developers to use a universal codebase across all platforms without requiring any modifications.

    Many developers are already familiar with jQuery, which serves as the foundation for jQuery Mobile. This facilitates a quick uptake for those who are familiar with its syntax. Furthermore, jQuery Mobile’s HTML5-based setup allows users to rapidly create unique page layouts without requiring any coding. Pre-built UI widgets that are touch-optimized and platform-independent are also readily available for use.
  7. Flutter

    Flutter may be a relatively new addition to the software development landscape, but it has already had a significant impact. Google backs this framework, which comprises the Dart platform, the Flutter engine, the foundation library, and a set of design-specific widgets, ensuring its longevity.

    Flutter empowers the creation of web, desktop, and mobile applications from a single source code, making the development process faster and more accessible. Pre-made widgets can be customized to meet individual requirements, providing native performance to application, as Flutter’s code is compiled into native ARM machine code. This provides significant time savings and an improved user experience.
  8. Angular UI for Mobile Devices

    Mobile Angular UI is a unique framework that functions both as a mobile UI framework, similar to jQuery Mobile, and as an extension of the core features of Bootstrap. This framework offers mobile-focused components such as switches, scrollable areas, and sidebars that are not available within Bootstrap.

    The framework requires no jQuery dependencies or Bootstrap JavaScript. Instead, it utilizes Angular directives to simplify application development. Using Bootstrap syntax enables the rapid and easy creation of applications.
  9. Titanium Appcelerator

    Appcelerator Titanium is a cross-platform mobile app development framework that eliminates the need for “hybrid compromises”. Like other frameworks, it employs a single codebase (JavaScript) to create cross-platform software.

    Titanium offers a notable advantage in that applications can be entirely developed using JavaScript. Through the use of a connection layer, native UI elements can be integrated with JavaScript code, creating a complete native experience without the need for version-specific customization. Additionally, Hyperloop in Titanium offers access to Java, Objective-C, Swift, and C# native APIs and libraries.
  10. Swiftic

    If you’re seeking a straightforward approach to mobile app development for iOS and Android, consider Swiftic. This mobile framework offers all the essential features, including push notifications and social network feeds, to ensure your app has the necessary functionalities.

    Due to the user-friendly nature of this framework, it does not provide as much flexibility, making it potentially less suitable for more experienced programmers. However, novice mobile developers will find that it offers a solid foundation for creating enterprise-grade applications for businesses of all sizes.
  11. NativeScript

    NativeScript is a well-known JavaScript framework that facilitates the development of mobile applications for both Android and iOS devices. It is chock-full of features that enable the integration of a user’s camera and contacts into the app.

    With a focus on efficient code usage, NativeScript offers two key features. Firstly, it empowers the creation of native user interfaces from a single source. Secondly, the code can be reused across multiple applications.
  12. Plan of Attack 7

    If your project requires a robust mobile application development framework, consider Framework 7, a mobile and web app development tool that can meet your needs, including the creation of more advanced applications. Surprisingly, Framework 7 is frequently utilized for prototyping purposes.

    Framework 7 offers developers significant flexibility, as it can be utilized with a wide range of plugins to work with JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. Moreover, it has built-in support for Vue and React and boasts an active development community that continually produces new versions and updates the documentation.
  13. Rachet

    Unfortunately, mobile developers often overlook Ratchet, another JavaScript framework. The availability of so many frameworks can be overwhelming, resulting in confusion. However, if you’re searching for a framework to create mobile or online applications, Ratchet is worth considering. This framework was created by the same group that made Bootstrap, guaranteeing its high quality.

    Ratchet is a front-end framework that allows users to create native-style mobile applications using JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. It’s easy to use, either by combining different elements to start from scratch or by using one of the many available templates as a starting point. The process of finalizing an app is simple, with quick results being visible.

Tools for Crafting AI

  1. PyTorch

    If you’re seeking a well-known machine learning framework, PyTorch is an excellent option. Its widespread popularity is due to its formidable features that make it simple to use, from initial prototype stages through to final production. Additionally, there are numerous plugins, frameworks, and library tools available to further expand its functionality.

    PyTorch is a top pick among developers working in computer vision and natural language processing. It is an excellent choice for machine learning projects because of its cloud support, which enables effortless deployment and provides outstanding scalability for both production and training.
  2. Libraries for Neural Networks

    The Neural Network Libraries is a highly valued deep learning framework for researchers and developers of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Numerous developers have praised it for its user-friendly interface, which enables the development of intricate deep learning solutions with minimal coding effort, resulting in portable cross-platform applications.

    This framework offers dynamic computation graph support and multi-target device acceleration through the Neural Network Libraries plugin. Furthermore, it enables the inclusion of new functionality through a combination of a structured function abstraction and a code template generator.
  3. Apache MXNet: An Open-Source Mesh Network

    Apache MXNet is a significant deep learning framework designed to facilitate speedy model training, thanks to its scalability. Its support for multiple programming languages is an added benefit.

    This framework offers a comprehensive ecosystem of supporting tools and libraries that enable expansion into diverse fields such as computer vision, natural language processing, time series, and more.
  4. ML.NET

    For .NET developers, ML.NET provides an open-source platform to create machine learning solutions. In other words, C# and F# within .NET environments enable the incorporation of machine learning capabilities into online, mobile, and desktop applications, games, and IoT systems.

    This framework offers a builder and Command Line Interface (CLI) that make it easy to create bespoke models. Additionally, Automated ML, an advanced solution that leverages automation for faster and more improved model development, is available. ML.NET can be integrated with other prevalent ML frameworks to unlock more features and extend its usability.
  5. Infer.NET

    If you’re looking to utilise the same technology as that used by Microsoft’s Office, Xbox, and Azure, Infer.NET is the perfect solution. This technology is based on Bayesian inference in graphical models and probabilistic programming and can assist with numerous machine learning tasks such as data categorisation and clustering, as well as domain-specific issues.

    Infer.NET is an optimal platform for large-scale inference applications due to its ability to generate models into source code that can execute without the original application. Furthermore, it’s an even more powerful tool thanks to its customisable distributions, factors, operations, and algorithms. Even without customisation, this framework offers an impressive array of capabilities.
  6. Accord.NET

    Although the creator of Accord.NET declared a few months ago that it might be the last update, users can still benefit from the framework. Accord.NET has applications in areas such as machine learning, computer vision, and image processing.

    Accord.NET’s apps and testing tools provide an exceptional starting point for model building. The existing examples and pattern-based design of the template methods make it simple to experiment with various learning algorithms and training strategies, allowing you to quickly identify the most effective solution for your requirements.
  7. Chainer

    Chainer is a Python-based deep learning system built on the foundations of NumPy and CuPy. It was the first to introduce the define-by-run strategy, although its influence is confined to a particular field. Chainer’s define-by-run approach enables the network to be determined during the training process, rather than the more traditional two-phase technique.

    Chainer’s incorporation of Python control flow instructions with backpropagation makes it an intuitive and easy-to-use tool. This simplifies the framework’s use and reduces the complexity of debugging.
  8. Horovod

    Horovod is crucial for hastening the development of deep learning models. This deep learning training framework allows the execution of any training script on hundreds of GPUs, with compatibility for TensorFlow, Keras, PyTorch, and Apache MXNet. The most convenient aspect is that implementation requires only a few lines of Python code.

    Deploying Horovod on any cloud platform (e.g. AWS or Azure) enables training growth. Running Horovod on top of Apache Spark integrates training and processing into one pipeline, resulting in savings of time and effort.
  9. H2O Q

    Developing interactive and visually appealing AI applications can be a complex process. However, the task can be simplified by using an application development framework such as H2O Q. This framework facilitates the rapid building of AI applications for Python developers, using an array of pre-made components.

    H2O Q offers an extensive variety of pre-developed Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications that can be personalised to meet specific business requirements. This enables users to create bespoke solutions by combining existing components.

Approaches to Software Testing

  1. Diagram of a Robot

    The Robot Framework is an automation framework that can be utilised to develop robotic process automation (RPA) solutions and automate testing. It is a keyword-driven framework with a user-friendly syntax that can be extended further with libraries written in Java and Python, providing benefits irrespective of whether one is working on an Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD) project.

    Robot Framework is a valuable tool that can be further strengthened by combining it with other approaches. For optimal results, it is recommended to use the Robot Framework’s integrated development environment (RIDE).
  2. Gauge

    This test automation framework has been created to fulfil the requirements of acceptance testing. It enables the development of test scenarios and cases, written in Markdown, which considerably reduces development time. Additionally, its refactoring capabilities allow the reuse of specifications and eradication of duplicate code.

    Gauge exhibits impressive compatibility with other tools and automation drivers, and can be extended with plugins written in various languages to incorporate additional drivers, data sources, IDEs, and events. Gauge now also includes built-in parallelization capabilities, allowing a significant reduction in test run time.
  3. Pytest

    Pytest is a Python testing tool that is mature and full-featured, with a straightforward interface that is optimised for the creation of small tests. However, it is also beneficial for projects of any size, as it can rapidly scale tests and support functional testing.

    Pytest offers several useful features, such as automatic detection of test modules and functions, as well as modular fixtures that aid in managing test resources. Additionally, it supports a broad range of add-ons that can enhance its capabilities.
  4. Jest

    Jest is recognised as among the most user-friendly JavaScript testing frameworks, thanks to its straightforward setup and accessible interface. It is suitable for various front-end frameworks, such as React, Angular, Vue, TypeScript and more, making it a versatile choice for projects. However, this is just a hint of the vast potential of this powerful framework.

    Jest tests are all isolated, allowing for enhanced functionality and improved efficiency. Additionally, with the feature-rich API, tests can be generated quickly, resulting in superior outcomes and reduced development time.
  5. Mocha

    Mocha is a JavaScript testing framework that is compatible with Node.js applications. This framework eases the development of asynchronous tests that are executed sequentially, resulting in accurate results and the proper mapping of exceptions. Furthermore, Mocha provides robust support for assertion libraries such as should.js, express.js, and better-assert.

    Mocha features a number of impressive built-in capabilities, such as the ability to run in the browser, nine different reporters to provide comprehensive reporting, and the option to run parallel tests that can, in numerous cases, deliver significant performance improvements with no additional configuration.
  6. Jasmine

    Jasmine is a behaviour-driven testing framework created for use with JavaScript code. With its clear, straightforward syntax and broad suite of built-in capabilities, it simplifies program testing, delivering a level of functionality that is difficult to find in other frameworks in such a short amount of time.

    Jasmine is renowned for its exceptional speed, as it does not rely on any external factors and can execute tests in both the browser and Node.js without the need for additional tools, making it a great timesaving option.
  7. Nightwatch

    Nightwatch is an extensive testing framework primarily designed for Node.js developers, allowing them to conveniently test any aspect of their web applications or websites. It provides an easy-to-use syntax, simplifying the process of writing tests in JavaScript.

    Like the other frameworks listed here, Nightwatch can be personalised by adding new commands and assertions to perform more complex tasks. The actual advantage of this framework is its command-line test runner and the ability to integrate sequential and parallel tests into build procedures. Furthermore, the Nightwatch team is actively developing their own cloud testing platform that will significantly expedite the execution of tests once it is launched.
  8. Protractor

    Protractor is an excellent tool for conducting end-to-end testing on Angular applications. It uses WebDriverJs, which enables the simulation of real-world browser interactions utilising native events and drivers specific to each browser for more accurate reporting of outcomes.

    A valuable Protractor feature is automatic waiting, which allows pending tasks to complete before beginning tests, ensuring synchronisation of tests and websites, alleviating concerns of the same.
  9. Cypress

    Cypress is a comprehensive testing framework that integrates mocking and stubbing into a single framework. It is worthwhile to consider, as it promises to rapidly and efficiently support “everything that runs in a browser.” Although it may not always fulfil this commitment, it is still a great option.

    Thanks to its time-traveling capabilities, which allow you to inspect every stage of your process, this tool offers significant advantages. Furthermore, it provides excellent debugging amenities, allowing you to use existing tools like Chrome’s DevTools to detect and resolve any problems that may arise. Also, the automated waiting feature and real-time reloading make it easy to quickly make changes to your tests.
  10. TestProject

    TestProject is a comprehensive framework that offers a variety of tools for automating the testing of online and mobile applications. The framework includes an in-browser recorder, enabling users to rapidly and easily create automated tests based on their own needs.

    After developing your tests, you can utilise the Test Editor to customise them to suit your requirements. This includes adding comments, setting types, selecting failure behaviour, and establishing timeouts. Then, in TestProject’s Test Analytics area, you can review the detailed information collected from your tests.
  11. Galen Framework

    To evaluate the responsiveness of a website’s appearance and functionality, the Java-based Galen Framework can be used. Based on the Selenium platform, it can be executed in a grid environment to determine cross-browser compatibility. With the aid of certain fundamental principles and a specific syntax, you can describe your layout and have the Galen Framework examine the arrangement of elements in relation to one another.

    The Galen Framework enables you to conduct tests on your website across various browser widths, which is advantageous because responsive websites are ubiquitous. Therefore, with just a few adjustments, you can assess how your website responds to different display sizes.
  12. WebDriverIO

    WebDriverIO is a Node.js-based framework designed for automating browser and mobile testing, allowing the creation of tests that are highly compatible across different browsers. It is a powerful framework that can be easily adapted to suit any testing requirement, thanks to its wide range of plugins created by an active community. Moreover, it can be further enhanced through the addition of custom utility functions and specific command combinations.

    WebDriverIO is compatible with various popular web frameworks, making it easy to use with React, Angular, and Vue projects. Furthermore, it is compatible with both Apple and Google’s mobile operating systems. Its configuration tool simplifies the rapid generation of a config file, meaning testing can begin in just a few minutes.
  13. OpenTest

    If the other automation frameworks discussed do not meet your requirements, OpenTest may be worth considering. This framework is specifically designed for automating testing for web, mobile, and API applications, and is particularly useful for those new to test engineering, as it is simple to set up while remaining highly scalable and extensible.

    OpenTest is a keyword-driven solution that allows you to create tests that are direct and easily updated. This approach conceals the complexity of the underlying keywords, simplifying the task of test creation and enabling you to concentrate on the outcomes of your tests. While some customisation is sacrificed, the framework provides quick development of a wide range of automated tests for your convenience.
  14. Citrus

    Citrus is an enterprise integration testing and test automation platform that empowers users to create comprehensive test suites for automated execution. This platform helps maintain the product’s highest quality standards with testing implementations in any continuous integration system.

    This robust framework places complete testing process control at your fingertips by allowing you to define validation and emulation control messages for interface partners. Citrus is user-friendly with XML and cross-editor compatibility. Its core functionality can also be extended through a wide spectrum of add-ons, and you can further customise it by creating your own special functions and testing activities.
  15. Karate

    Karate is an all-in-one framework for API test automation, mocking, and performance testing. It allows for the maximisation of productivity by combining API and UI test automation into a single script, represented by a straightforward syntax. Tests can be executed in parallel, which is particularly useful when assessing HTTP APIs, to further boost speed.

    For those with no previous coding experience who are curious to begin a martial art, karate is an excellent option. Tests driven by data can be generated using JSON or CSV input, and it comes with simple yet suitable assets designed to handle large responses. It excels overall, but particularly shines when testing APIs.

Different Structures

  1. Scrapy

    Scrapy is a web crawling framework that can be used to collect data from webpages or APIs. It offers a simple method of delegating assignments to a group of spiders, allowing them to complete the heavy lifting. Scrapy facilitates code reuse, and the included web-crawling shell provides an opportunity to test instructions in a realistic environment.
  2. Truffle

    The Truffle framework streamlines the creation, testing, and deployment of smart contracts and dApps on the Ethereum network. The Truffle, Ganache, and Drizzle components provide a comprehensive solution for developing decentralised applications. Firstly, the Ethereum Virtual Machine is essential for crafting dApps. Secondly, Ganache allows developers to construct and evaluate smart contracts and decentralised applications. Finally, as a front-end development library, Drizzle synchronises data.
  3. Embark

    Embark is a platform created to simplify the development, testing, and deployment of smart contracts and distributed applications. It is a user-friendly alternative to Truffle and offers greater flexibility in managing and implementing smart contracts. In addition, this framework allows for a high degree of customisation, empowering users to decide how extensively they wish to configure the setup.
  4. Etherlime

    Etherlime is an Ethereum framework that simplifies the creation and deployment of blockchain applications. The makers recognise the significance of being comprehensive in order to provide users with a deep understanding of the deployment process. Additionally, Etherlime achieves reliable performance by building on top of ethers.js.
  5. A Platform for Contracting with OpenZeppelin

    OpenZeppelin Contracts is a blockchain framework that empowers developers to build secure smart contracts by utilising trusted libraries and well-established implementations of ERC standards. It provides increased levels of security, a modular method for building robust code, as well as reusable Solidity components, making it possible to design intricate systems and personalised contracts.
  6. Brownie

    Brownie is a Python-based tool that employs Pytest to streamline test development for the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Additionally, it offers extensive debugging capabilities to facilitate the creation of high-quality work.
  7. Create an Ethereum-Based Application

    Create Eth App is a command-line framework that streamlines the process of developing Ethereum-based applications. It does so by executing a minimal number of commands and adopting a standard boilerplate format. The development team aims to promote a better understanding of blockchain technology among newcomers by providing additional front-end components.
  8. Exonum

    Exonum is a blockchain framework that emphasises the security, speed, and efficiency of smart contracts. It enables the creation and management of smart contracts on a private blockchain using languages like Rust and Java, achieving fast results. Furthermore, Exonum can help develop tokens or cryptocurrencies if your project necessitates one.
  9. Hyperledger

    Hyperledger is not a standalone framework, but rather an umbrella organisation that includes multiple established blockchain frameworks and associated tools. Each framework, such as Fabric, Iroha, Sawtooth, and Besu, has its specific usage in the blockchain field.
  10. Corda

    Corda is a distinctive blockchain platform fuelled by commercial interests. It enables the creation of decentralised applications, or ‘CordApps’, which enable secure business transactions using smart contracts. The objective is to develop reliable and high-performance dApps that can enhance corporate operations.
  11. MultiChain

    MultiChain is a platform built to simplify the creation and deployment of private blockchains. It provides a simple two-step process to begin, which enables issuing assets and conducting transactions with ease. Additionally, the platform can be customised to meet specific security requirements.
  12. Meteor

    The Meteor framework, scripted in JavaScript, streamlines web, mobile, and desktop development using familiar tools. This enables developers to focus on the distinctive elements of their project while integrating components they already know. Moreover, an integrated JavaScript stack empowers developers to produce applications that are more lightweight and cross-compatible on various platforms.
  13. Onsen User Interface

    The Onsen UI framework empowers the creation of Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) and hybrid applications with a native appearance and experience. Writing code in JavaScript allows serving customers on iOS and Android with the same codebase, as the framework includes various components that adapt automatically to the platform on which the app is running.
  14. SiteWhere

    Use SiteWhere, a versatile Java-based platform, to develop custom Internet of Things (IoT) applications for a variety of products, ranging from wearables to home automation devices. The framework can be seamlessly integrated into your company’s platform, offering access to data that can inform future product development.
  15. Electron

    Electron is a toolkit designed to aid in the development of graphical user interfaces for desktop using common web technologies, such as JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. Electron streamlines the application creation process by offering a straightforward development environment. Chromium-based Electron enables a faster development time while requiring more effort.
  16. Svelte

    Svelte is gaining popularity compared to other JavaScript frameworks because of its focus on a compilation step, as opposed to the browser-centric method employed by Vue and React. By generating code to update the DOM in response to state modifications, Svelte achieves better runtime and load efficiency, as well as smaller file sizes.
  17. Aurelia

    Aurelia is a creative JavaScript client framework that follows a modular approach to web and mobile app development. By integrating various components, developers can swiftly and effectively create robust applications that can be tailored to meet their unique specifications.
  18. Mithril

    Mithril is a JavaScript framework renowned for its ability to produce resilient Single Page Applications. As a microframework, it is easy to write code for. Additionally, Mithril features built-in routing and XHR tools that are simple enough for beginners to utilise effectively within a short span of time.
  19. Bulma

    Bulma is an alternative framework that generates a single CSS file that can be utilised as is or altered as per your specifications. Its chief objective is to reduce the necessity of utilising JavaScript while working on the styling layer of your logic.
  20. Microdot

    Microdot is a .NET framework that simplifies the creation of high-quality microservices. The framework’s distributed system configuration allows developers to concentrate on the service’s core functionality, consequently reducing the time to market. Moreover, Microdot features a service container and hierarchical configuration system that supports change detection and a variety of microservice patterns.
  21. Rapidoid

    Rapidoid, a modern Java web framework and application container, is known for its speed, efficiency, and performance. It has a variety of modules, including a network protocol framework, REST API framework, web GUI components module, and a template engine module.
  22. Ktor

    Ktor is an asynchronous Kotlin-based framework for building web applications and microservices. Its pliable architecture allows for the inclusion of any desired features by integrating additional components into the pipeline. Additionally, the use of Kotlin coroutines and non-blocking development methodology makes it possible to create highly scalable applications.
  23. Scalatra

    Scalatra is a microframework for web development that combines the powerful features of the Java Virtual Machine with the succinct development style of Scala, allowing developers to create websites and APIs quickly. In addition, Scalatra meshes well with client-side frameworks such as Angular and Ember as a backend companion.
  24. Toolatra

    Toolatra is a micro web framework inspired by Sinatra that enables developers to develop HTTP Tcl applications. It includes a web server, token management and verification module, and a template and layout engine. Although its functionality is basic, it provides a dependable and effective solution.

The Ever-Evolving Universe of Frameworks

It is not unexpected that only a few frameworks are widely recognised and utilised due to the vast range of programming languages available. This is because developers typically develop frameworks to standardise and streamline common development procedures for each language, discipline, and set of difficulties.

It is apparent that this compilation lacks a framework. As demonstrated, it is arduous to provide a comprehensive overview of all frameworks because new ones are constantly emerging, while existing ones may undergo substantial changes, mergers or even become obsolete. The presented array of options should stimulate further exploration of different frameworks.

As a developer, you may frequently utilise frameworks. This list has been compiled to aid you in evaluating your options and selecting the most fitting choice for your development project.

Join the Top 1% of Remote Developers and Designers

Works connects the top 1% of remote developers and designers with the leading brands and startups around the world. We focus on sophisticated, challenging tier-one projects which require highly skilled talent and problem solvers.
seasoned project manager reviewing remote software engineer's progress on software development project, hired from Works blog.join_marketplace.your_wayexperienced remote UI / UX designer working remotely at home while working on UI / UX & product design projects on Works blog.join_marketplace.freelance_jobs