We anticipated that creating a list of the top 100 programming languages would be a significant task when we initially began. Although the majority of software developers utilize the same 20 or so languages, there are still a substantial number of languages in circulation.
As we quickly realized, providing an overview of such a broad subject could be difficult. What would be the best method of categorizing the top 100 programming languages? Is there a particular order of importance? How can we agree on a set of criteria for classifying them? These questions were posed during the planning of this project, and we have succeeded in finding a solution.
We had to make a few adjustments. Most importantly, we had to deviate from the standard order of topics. We should not assume that C is more advanced than Java or Python simply because it is discussed first.
To identify which languages were suitable, we consulted the TIOBE Index (although there are more programming languages available, we needed to set a limit). For those who may not be aware, the TIOBE Index is a widely recognized measure of the demand for different programming languages. To find out more, please click on the link provided.
We settled on a definition of a programming language after much debate. We started out by agreeing to use the following definition from Wikipedia:
According to Wikipedia, a programming language is a formal language which comprises a set of instructions that generate various kinds of output. These instructions must be executed in order to carry out computer algorithms.
We have amended the TIOBE Index to only take into account Works-complete languages, due to its utility. We are confident that this will ensure we are not omitting any of the top 100 languages globally. We assure you that we will discuss the most important of these and provide an explanation as to why they are prominent.
Once the necessary preparations have been completed, we can begin this overview, where we will gain an understanding of each programming language and the potential benefits of utilising them.
Listed Below Are the 50 Most Important Programming Languages.
C’s deserved reputation is well-founded, as it has been providing almost limitless potential since at least Unix version 4. Today’s operating systems, language compilers and interpreters, drivers, and utilities are predominantly written in this general-purpose language.
JavaJava‘s popularity is largely attributed to its adherence to the “write once, run anywhere” (WORA) philosophy, which allows programmes written in Java to be run on any platform that supports the language without any additional programming or recompilation. The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) makes this possible by operating within a Virtual Machine, thereby enabling it to run on multiple operating systems simultaneously.
Java is an ideal programming language for a vast scope of tasks due to its extensive range of applications. It is employed in Android and web development, game development, big data tools and scientific platforms.
PythonWhen posed with the query of which programming language to learn first, the answer that is often given is Python. This is because the language prioritizes readability, user-friendliness and versatility, making it ideal for those starting out in programming, as it can be applied to a broad range of tasks.
Python is renowned for its versatility, allowing it to be used to create a wide variety of applications and games. It is particularly well-suited to certain tasks, such as data analysis, scripting and scientific research, making it a popular choice amongst professionals in these areas. However, Python is also an excellent choice for building AI-based apps and web applications.
C++The development of C++ was driven by the aim to combine high-level features with the low-level features of C. Since its introduction, C++ has evolved significantly, integrating object-oriented, generic and functional approaches. It is a compiled language and can be compiled using a variety of compilers for use on multiple platforms.
C++ is a popular choice for system development and embedded systems due to its high performance over its predecessor. As such, it is often employed in the development of device drivers, gaming engines, image and audio software, telecommunications networks, and interpreters.
C#C# is an enhanced version of the C programming language, with added object-oriented features. It was developed as part of Microsoft’s .NET initiative and is currently the primary language for .NET development.
C# is a versatile programming language, with a particular strength in the development of software for Microsoft Windows. With the aid of cross-platform tools such as Xamarin, it is also possible to create native mobile applications for a broad range of devices.
PHPWhen considering server-side development, PHP is often mentioned. It is now the most popular language for creating applications that run on a server. This versatile programming language can be used to process cookies, collate data from web forms, and create dynamic content. Primarily, PHP is used for web development; however, its capabilities extend far beyond this.
PHP scripting is a great choice for command-line tasks or other simple processing, as it only requires a PHP parser to run. Experienced PHP users can also build desktop applications with it, although a deeper understanding of the language is necessary. Learning PHP is straightforward due to its gradual learning curve, making it an ideal language for beginner programmers.
VB.NETDespite the increasing popularity of C# amongst .NET programmers, Visual Basic remains widely used. This multi-paradigm, object-oriented language offers several advantages over its predecessor; it is straightforward to learn, reliable, and highly scalable. Additionally, it permits full access to the .NET libraries.
Because it is built on the .NET framework, VB.NET may be used to rapidly develop programmes for desktop computers, web browsers, and mobile devices.
RIt is unsurprising that R has been rapidly increasing in popularity among software developers, considering the booming fields of data science and statistics. R has an impressive library that enables it to implement a vast range of statistical and graphical methods, such as linear and nonlinear modelling, classification, clustering and many more.
Statisticians and data miners rely on R for performing statistical analyses and producing high-quality data visualizations. Its versatility and the wide range of add-ons available have made R a popular choice for dealing with large datasets, compared to other tools.
SQLSQL is a widely used programming language that is essential to modern technology. It is used to create and manage databases, as well as to perform operations on them such as adding, changing, and retrieving data.
SQL is highly popular due to its familiarity to engineers, enabling them to manage relational databases in modern IT environments such as cloud-native systems and virtual networks. This is why SQL is often the preferred choice for working with data in a database.
GoGo, or Golang, is a programming language developed by Google that is situated between C and C++. It boasts syntactical similarities to C, but is more sophisticated due to features like garbage collection and structural typing, thus providing the benefits of C++ without the complexity.
Go was initially created for use in the development of computer systems, but has since seen a wide range of applications, such as web apps, cloud platforms, containerisation tools and even certain components of cryptocurrency infrastructure. It’s simple interface makes it an ideal choice for experienced developers, while also being accessible to those new to coding.
SwiftIf you are keen to develop applications for iOS devices, learning Swift is a must. Developed by Apple, this language is compatible with a range of their operating systems, including iOS, OS X, watchOS, tvOS and Linux. It is heavily influenced by both C and Objective-C but is also backwards compatible.
Swift is a high-performance, general-purpose language that is compatible with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and existing Objective-C code. It is Apple’s preferred language for app development, providing strong security and promoting good software architecture.
PerlPerl has been a widely used programming language for over forty years, gaining the nickname ‘the swiss army knife’ of programming. Its high-level, interpreted, dynamic nature makes it a suitable language for both rapid prototyping and large-scale software development projects, and it is compatible with over one hundred platforms. Originally designed for text editing, Perl has since found a variety of other uses, such as Linux system management, network programming, and web development.
It is important to note that the term “Perl” may refer to the Perl family of languages, including Raku (formerly known as Perl 6). The original Perl team continues to work on its development, whilst Raku is now recognized as an independent programming language and is supported by its own development team and timeline.
Code for self-assemblyAssembly language is a low-level programming language which is as close to the processor instructions as possible, with minimal abstraction from the computer architecture. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as symbolic machine code.
An assembler is a special kind of processor which is responsible for translating assembly code into machine code, allowing the processor to execute it. Each assembler is tailored to the specific computer architecture it was designed for, as assembly is dependent on the machine instructions. Whilst the relevance of assembly language in the modern world is a subject of debate, it is useful in certain contexts, such as when speed or size optimizations are necessary, when developing drivers, or when there are tight time constraints, such as in real-time simulators.
RubyRuby is described as a language of “meticulous balance” on its official website, with its features having been drawn from a variety of other programming languages such as Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada and Lisp. Its developers have the full freedom to modify or remove any aspect of this high-level, interpreted, general-purpose language.
Due to the popularity of the Ruby on Rails framework, with its MVC (Model View Controller) architecture and promotion of web standards, Ruby is widely used for the development of web applications. However, Ruby can be applied to a range of other tasks, such as data analysis, prototyping, and proofs of concept.
MATLABThe MATLAB programming language is a powerful choice for technical and scientific applications. Matrix-based, it allows for the most natural expression of sophisticated computational mathematics. Based upon its proprietary platform, MATLAB enables users to work with matrices, implement data, and plot functions.
MATLAB is an invaluable resource for data analysts, programmers, and mathematicians who are involved in the development of algorithms, models, and applications. It provides an accessible environment with straightforward yet powerful calculation and visualisation tools, enabling users to create sophisticated results that are easily understandable to those with a mathematical background.
The Original Visual BasicIt is remarkable that Classic Visual Basic continues to be ranked amongst the top 20 programming languages, as reported by the TIOBE Index, despite Microsoft announcing that the language was obsolete back in 2008. Nonetheless, it appears that many developers are still relying on it to maintain essential legacy systems.
A successful approach to creating Microsoft-focused applications by utilizing the platform’s components was historically Visual Basic (particularly after the VB community began to produce their own components). Unfortunately, currently, only developers who have proficiency in other languages and need it for a particular project should consider learning it. We expect the discontinuation of Classic VB in the foreseeable future; however, it has been maintained for archival reasons.
Groovy in ApacheApache Groovy is an object-oriented language that runs on the Java platform, offering syntactic compatibility with Java. It shares certain characteristics with other programming languages such as Python, Ruby and Smalltalk, due to its static and dynamic programming capabilities. Additionally, it is compatible with other Java programmes and libraries, due to its use of the Java Virtual Machine, thus increasing its usefulness.
Apache Groovy is a powerful tool that can be utilised to enhance the performance of any Java project. It offers features such as scripting, domain-specific language creation, metaprogramming and functional programming, making it an ideal “Java enhancer”. As such, it can provide greater flexibility and strength for programmers working in Java.
Objective-CObjective-C is a high-level programming language that builds on C, incorporating syntax and functionality from Smalltalk. As all programs written in C will run in an Objective-C compiler, it can be considered a superset of C. Originally created to bring Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) to C, it has now developed into its own language.
Due to its advantageous features, Objective-C was the preferred language for programming Mac OSX and iOS applications. However, with Apple’s introduction of Swift, Objective-C is no longer the only viable choice. It is still worth considering for certain projects.
RustRust has been frequently featured in Stack Overflow’s Developer Surveys as one of the most favoured programming languages. This is due to its multi-paradigm approach, which is focused on efficiency and security. Rust’s powerful compiler provides extensive validation of variables and memory locations, allowing developers to create efficient, idiomatic code.
Due to its speedy performance, dependable memory management, and adaptable parallelism, Rust has become a popular choice among developers. It can be used to create game engines, operating systems, browser extensions, and file systems, amongst a range of other applications.
Historically Significant, Emerging, and Rarely Taught Languages
SASThis programming language is specifically designed to enable the execution of statistical data analysis, utilizing both database and spreadsheet formats. SAS gathers the data, performs the analysis, and presents the results through a range of visualizations, textual formats, and web-based publications. Due to its ability to effectively manage and process large volumes of data, it is commonly employed in both government and academic settings.
ScratchIn recent years, there has been an increased focus from governments, universities, and corporations to introduce young people to computer programming. Scratch is a free, visual programming language, based on Smalltalk, that has been specifically designed for children aged 8 to 16. It enables them to learn the fundamentals of programming and systematic thinking through the creation of interactive media, such as stories, games, and animations.
DD is an alternative programming language that aims to address some of the issues present in C. Similar to C++, it is an object-oriented language, but does not maintain backward compatibility with C.
PL/SQLWorking with databases requires more than just SQL, thus a procedural language that is a superset of SQL, such as PL/SQL, is essential. This language provides additional procedural programming concepts, including conditionals, loops, functions, objects, types and more. Being developed by Oracle, it is fully compatible with the company’s databases.
LogoCreators of a certain age may recall Logo, one of the earliest programming languages designed to teach children coding. In order to learn how to write code on a terminal, many of us used a small turtle which could be instructed to draw various shapes and patterns with our instructions. Despite its potential to create professional-quality graphics, multimedia presentations and games, Logo has been referred to as “Lisp for kids” by some.
DelphiDelphi, or Object Pascal, is a language and integrated development environment (IDE) designed to enable rapid application development. As a successor to Turbo Pascal, which was known for its fast compilation times, Delphi extended the language’s capabilities to include object-oriented programming, making it an ideal choice for building desktop, mobile, web and console applications.
COBOLCOBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is one of the earliest high-level programming languages and is still in use today. Its predominance is primarily due to its ability to maintain and enhance existing corporate, financial and administrative systems. Despite its potential demise, its impressive performance on mainframes ensures that it remains a useful language.
KotlinKotlin is a cross-platform, general-purpose programming language, which has been chosen by Google for Android development. Its popularity is largely due to the many benefits it offers, such as being more condensed than Java, simpler to learn and producing fewer errors, making it an attractive alternative to Java.
Instances of OpenEdge ABLOpenEdge ABL is a high-abstraction, fourth-generation programming language designed to facilitate enterprise application development. Its main aim is to be as accessible as possible, providing all of the tools necessary for Rapid Application Development, making it an ideal choice for creating basic prototypes and interfaces for complex systems.
JuliaRecent growth in popularity has been observed for the new, dynamic programming language Julia. This language has broad applicability however it is particularly well-suited for computational science projects due to its built-in support for linear algebra, regular expression matching and floating-point computations. Developers dealing with numerical analysis may find that Julia is a convenient option.
ABAPThe Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP) language is essential for the development of SAP software and other business-oriented applications. ABAP was created by the company that gave it its name.
ScalaIt has been suggested that Scala shares many similarities with Java, and this may be accurate. Both languages are object-oriented, run on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and draw from Java’s library. However, Scala stands out from Java as it is equipped with functional programming capabilities, a more concise syntax and a higher degree of readability.
Transact-SQLTransact-SQL (T-SQL) is a Microsoft and Sybase-developed extension of SQL, used for interacting with relational database management systems. As Microsoft SQL Server is the most widely used database management system, T-SQL is essential for those programming on this platform. All interactions with this system are done via T-SQL statements, making this language highly popular among its intended audience; indeed, it is virtually essential.
SchemeScheme is often overlooked as simply a variation of Lisp; however, we believe it is much more than that. Whilst it has a concise core and a variety of useful features, Scheme possibly lacks complexity when compared to other versions of Lisp. This minimalism can be viewed both as a strength and a weakness depending on the application. In fact, many educators highly advocate for it, and some engineers consider it their go-to for scripting and designing embedded systems.
PrologProlog is distinct from other programming languages due to its logic programming approach. This means that the logic of a program is expressed through the relations between facts and rules, as opposed to the procedural logic used by many other languages. This logic is then used to interpret queries, allowing Prolog to be used in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence projects.
AdaIt is widely accepted that Ada Lovelace (also referred to as the “Enchantress of Numbers”) wrote the first computer programme. Although this is yet to be confirmed, it is certain that the Enchantress had a great impact on the French programmers who, building upon Pascal, created Ada – an object-oriented, high-level programming language. Even though it is not the most popular language, the French team behind its development placed a strong emphasis on security, particularly given that the language was commissioned by the US Department of Defense.
LispIt is time to explore Lisp, one of the oldest high-level programming languages still in use today. Lisp is a family of languages which draw from the same groundbreaking concepts, such as tree data structures, dynamic typing, recursion, and higher-order functions. Over the years, Lisp has been used for multiple purposes. However, its continued relevance is demonstrated by the fact that many developers in the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning have selected it as their primary tool.
ApexIn order to control transactions and flow statements, as well as API requests, Salesforce utilizes Apex, its own proprietary programming language. This language is similar to other object-oriented languages such as Java and C#, allowing Salesforce developers to integrate business logic into a wide range of system events. The main advantage of Apex when used with Salesforce is what attracts software professionals to use it.
LuaLua remains one of the most effective programming languages for extending software systems to achieve greater flexibility. Its design is focused on efficiency, portability, and simplicity, making it highly suitable for those with limited time and resources. Moreover, Lua’s ability to be used across multiple operating systems is a major advantage that significantly enhances its utility.
FortranFor over sixty years, Fortran has continued to be a highly relevant and popular language, particularly in the areas of mathematical calculation, scientific computing, computational fluid dynamics, geophysics, and finite element analysis. Its unique performance in computationally intensive applications has enabled Fortran to remain a preferred language for many benchmarking programmes. As a general-purpose, imperative language, developed by IBM, Fortran continues to be a reliable and efficient language for professionals.
HaskellHaskell is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, fully functional programming language, renowned for the range of languages which are based on it. Its functions are “purely functional”, meaning they make no assumptions about the global or local state other than those provided by the function’s arguments. This simplicity is what has made Haskell so popular in both educational and industrial settings.
HackHack is a programming language created by Facebook to improve PHP. It adds static typing, new type clues and expanded support for existing type hints, allowing developers to make use of gradual typing and both dynamic and static type. Although it is not the most widely used language, Hack provides a great opportunity for developers to benefit from its features.
PC Software: Visual FoxProMicrosoft released the final version of Visual FoxPro in 2007, however, there remains a vibrant community who appreciate it for database application development. Despite the fact that Visual FoxPro is no longer used for the development of many contemporary programmes, there are still numerous legacy systems that have been created using it and continue to run efficiently, requiring ongoing maintenance.
AWKAWK is a specialized programming language that was created in the 1970s and is still in use today. It is a restricted language but is useful for processing large amounts of text in real time, either to generate new data or to alter existing text. This makes it a valuable asset for those who need to work with large volumes of text.
TclTcl, pronounced “tickle”, is a high-level, general-purpose programming language renowned for its simplicity. The language implements control structures such as “for” and “if” as commands, providing developers with a great degree of control and flexibility due to the ability to modify almost anything with only a few instructions. These features make Tcl an invaluable tool for programmers undertaking rapid prototyping, application development and quality assurance.
SmalltalkThe Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm for graphical user interface (GUI) development has been highly influenced by Smalltalk, marking a new era in user interfaces. Despite its significance, however, most developers have shifted to other programming languages. One of the reasons for Smalltalk’s current popularity is the abundance of development frameworks, such as Seaside, which simplifies the process of creating web applications.
Other 50 Languages Worth Mentioning
Whilst they may not have the largest user bases, the broadest selection of applications, or the most prominent brands investing in them, there are a number of other languages that are worth exploring in addition to those already mentioned. These range from the well-known to the classics, the up-and-coming, and the nearly extinct.
ABCABC is a general-purpose programming language and integrated development environment (IDE), created to replace BASIC, Pascal and AWK for teaching and prototyping. ABC was a key factor in the development of Python.
AliceThis visual programming language is a subset of Standard ML which utilizes 3D objects and point-and-click logic to facilitate the introduction of novice and young users to the fundamentals of computer programming.
APLThe term “A Programming Language” (APL) may be somewhat misleading, as it is one of the most unique languages available. This is largely attributed to the usage of a variety of distinct visual symbols for its functions and operators.
AutoLISPAutoLISP is a programming language derived from the Lisp family, specifically designed to interact with AutoCAD and its related systems. Its main purpose is to carry out geometric operations.
BashBourne Again Shell (or Bash) is a command language which is compatible with the ‘sh’ shell and which runs in a window environment. It has become the standard login shell for most Linux distributions since its introduction.
bcBC (which stands for ‘Basic Calculator’ or ‘Bench Calculator’, depending on who you ask) is an arbitrary-precision calculator language used for mathematical programming, as it can compute using numbers whose digits of accuracy are only limited by available memory.
An Example of a Bourne ShellBash was originally an acronym for “Bourne Again Shell”. This is the basis of the joke, as it is similar to Bash in that it takes, processes and returns results from commands, which can then be used in programming.
Shell, CThe C shell is presented as an additional shell option, which operates in a window and processes user input. This shell is preferable due to its increased accessibility and user-friendly nature, as it is based on the C programming language.
ClipperClipper is a compiler which can be used to adapt programmes written in a variety of xBase dialects for use on modern computers. It has been widely used in commercial and database applications, as well as having the ability to be used as a general-purpose programming language.
ClojureClojure is a general-purpose programming language which combines scripting techniques with a strong framework for writing applications that can utilise multiple processors at once. It is a subset of Lisp and has seen increased popularity in recent years, thanks to its use in artistic computing, and the endorsement of influential individuals.
Utilization of a Common LispCommon Lisp, a variant of the Lisp programming language, is considered to be superior to its successor, Maclisp. Common Lisp was designed with the objective of unifying the various Maclisp dialects into a single language that could cater to a range of programming requirements due to its combination of procedural, functional and object-oriented programming elements.
CrystalCrystal is a high-performance, general-purpose object-oriented language, drawing inspiration from Ruby to bring together its efficiency with the speed and agility of compiled languages. This makes it a potential choice for Ruby programmers looking to improve efficiency.
cTCT was an algorithmic language developed with an emphasis on multimedia, providing support for color visuals, mouse interactivity and video. It was a competing alternative to VPython for cross-platform multimedia application development; however, it was eventually not adopted.
ElixirElixir utilises Erlang’s BEAM virtual machine, making it a general-purpose language. It adopts many of the same abstractions as Erlang, providing improved productivity and a highly adaptable infrastructure.
Emacs LispEmacs Lisp is a Lisp dialect that is used as a programming language for the Emacs text editor. It shares a similarity to Maclisp and has been influenced by Common Lisp, making it a suitable language for modifying and enhancing Emacs.
ErlangErlang is a general-purpose programming language which was originally designed for the telecommunications sector but is now widely utilized for designing concurrent applications. Its functional, high-level nature enables it to handle multiple inputs simultaneously, making it a suitable choice for developing telecom tools, web applications, distributed computing, and other such solutions.
EuphoriaEuphoria is an imperative-procedural language designed with a focus on readability, speed and simplicity. This makes it a popular choice for use in fields such as string and image processing, artificial intelligence and mathematics research, due to its capacity to effectively manage variable collections of data.
F#Microsoft developed F# with productivity as a priority, and since its free availability to the public, it has been adopted for a variety of uses, including cloud computing, mathematics, statistics and corporate programming.
ForthForth is a procedural language which does not distinguish between types, with the capability for interactive command execution and compiled command sequences that can be saved and reused. It is primarily used for devices with hardware-dependent interfaces.
GenieIn an attempt to provide a more efficient and organized alternative to the Vala compiler, the Genie high-level language was developed. Aside from their individual syntaxes, Genie and Vala are essentially the same. Therefore, Genie is more comparable to modern languages such as Python and Delphi.
IconIcon is often regarded as a high-level language due to its graphical capabilities, however its primary purpose is to reduce the complexity associated with manipulating strings and structures. Its highly abstract syntax makes it a great choice for writing compact yet powerful programs for tasks such as text analysis, document formatting and data cleansing.
IDLIDL (Interactive Data Language) is a programming language designed for data processing and visualization, primarily used in the fields of astronomy, atmospheric physics, and medical imaging. It shares syntax with PV-Wave.
InformInform is an unconventional programming language used to create interactive narratives. It is a procedural and object-oriented language providing the necessary construction elements to construct the foundations of your stories.
IoIo is an Object-Oriented language which draws inspiration from Smalltalk, Lua and Lisp. It was designed with the aim of exploring concept unification and dynamic languages, prioritizing ease of use and adaptability over sheer speed.
Korn ShellOur Unix shell combines ideas from the Bourne shell and the C shell, making it the most user-friendly for new users in business settings. As a result, the Korn shell is the most widely used.
LabVIEWLabVIEW is a graphical dataflow language, allowing applications to be created by combining visual “routines”. It was designed to make it easier to create complex tools without the need for coding, and it is capable of interfacing with measurement and control devices.
Step-by-Step ReasoningPreviously, the term “Ladder Logic” was used to describe a method of documenting the design and implementation of relay racks using a system of symbols and their connections. The concept behind this language’s development is commendable; it provides a visual representation of a program. As a result, Ladder Logic is frequently utilized in control systems for manufacturing and processing plants.
LiveCodeLiveCode is renowned for its superior readability due to its object-oriented, English-like design. Furthermore, developers report that LiveCode can reduce the amount of code required to complete a project by up to 90%, without compromising on capability. Applications for artificial intelligence, big data and cryptography have all been successfully developed using LiveCode.
MapleMaple is a multi-paradigm language that enables users to produce robust programmes for a range of tasks, such as symbolic and mathematical analysis, data processing and visualisation. It is capable of functioning in both symbolic and quantitative contexts.
MercuryFunctional logic can be thought of as a declarative form of reasoning, and the Mercury language is no exception. This makes Mercury similar to Prolog, but with strong types and modes. It also has strong similarities to Haskell.
MLThe term “ML” stands for the field of programming language research. This is enabled by the Hindley-Milner type system, which allows for type safety to be achieved by implicit type assignment, negating the need for explicit annotations.
MQL4MQL4 is a high-level, object-oriented programming language with a C++-based foundation, allowing for great flexibility. This makes it suitable for developing complex applications which require a lot of calculations. Furthermore, the platform’s in-built functions for managing trading orders make it a popular choice for creating trading robots, indicators, scripts, and libraries for the MetaTrader 4 platform.
NATURALUnlike other proprietary fourth-generation languages such as NATURAL, Natural Language Programming (NLP) is structured and has less dependence on procedural language features than traditional languages. It utilizes the same system for both programme development and execution, with both interpretive and compiled modes supported. NLP was created to work with Adabas, a renowned database management system.
NXT-GThis graphical language was developed specifically for use with the LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotics set. It is managed by dragging and dropping function blocks and “sequence beams” into place. It is capable of interfacing with components other than those produced by LEGO, making it an excellent tool for teaching children programming and even for those new to the robotics industry.
OpenCLDespite the argument that OpenCL is more of a framework than a language, we remain firm in our decision to include it in the TIOBE Index. OpenCL enables developers to write code which can be executed across a range of processors and accelerators, such as central processing units, graphics processing units, digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays, and more. It also provides a unified protocol for communicating with accelerators used in cloud servers, mobile devices, embedded systems, and other forms of parallel computing hardware.
OzOz is a multi-paradigm language which is often utilized in educational settings. It draws upon concepts from various programming methods, such as imperative, object-oriented, functional and concurrent, which, combined with its straightforward semantics, makes it an excellent supplementary learning resource.
PL/IPL/I, or Programming Language One, is a procedural, imperative language that was first developed for use in scientific, engineering, business, and system programming. Nowadays, it is mainly used to maintain legacy systems or port them to new hardware.
PostScriptPostScript is a page description language, utilized to describe images and page layouts. Its specialist nature primarily makes it suitable for visual output, such as printing, typeface creation, desktop Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) and individual photographs. PostScript is widely employed in the publishing and data visualization industries due to its resolution-agnostic nature, allowing for scalable components.
QQ is a domain-specific language designed for array processing and querying the kdb+ column-based database. It is a simplified variant of the k language, designed to enhance readability.
RacketRacket is a versatile programming language, highly inspired by Scheme and suitable for scripting, research and educational purposes. The language is implemented within the Racket platform, which includes a runtime environment, library support and a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler.
RedRed was initially developed as an improvement on Rebol, but its ultimate aim was to become a comprehensive programming language. As such, Red is both functional and imperative, and can be employed for both high-level and low-level programming due to its two main components, Red/System and Red.
RingAt Ring, we value creativity and innovation in our work. Our general-purpose language supports imperative, procedural, object-oriented, declarative, functional, meta and natural programming. Additionally, Ring is highly versatile, easy to use and fast, making it suitable for a broad range of applications, such as web and game development.
RPGIBM’s high-level programming language RPG (Report Program Generator) was created to replace the punch card processing mechanism of the IBM 1401. In recent times, it has evolved into a language similar to COBOL, which is widely used by companies to create commercial applications on IBM’s iSeries minicomputers.
SS, the predecessor to R, is also a powerful tool for working with and analyzing data. It is a functional system which is highly extendible, as user-written functions are treated with the same importance as those of the system. S is often used for statistical and graphical analysis in large applications, due to its clear code and comparatively straightforward language.
SPARKSPARK, a dialect of Ada, is a language specifically designed to create software for safety-critical systems, such as those used in aerospace and aviation. Contracts can be employed to validate the specification of a solution’s components, guaranteeing the safety and security of the solution.
StataStata is a platform designed to support statistical analysis and specialized research. It is more than just a language; users can create charts, visualizations and simulations to tackle complex statistical problems. Both languages are highly effective for scripting and data manipulation.
ValaIt has been established that Vala and Genie share many similarities. Vala, an object-oriented language with syntax similar to C#, produces C code. This implies that any code created in Vala has the same performance as code written in C, but with the added benefit of being easier to write and maintain.
VerilogHDL (Hardware Description Language) is a purpose-built language for describing the inner workings of digital logic and electrical devices. As a result, digital circuits and computer chips are frequently designed with the aid of Verilog.
VHDLVHDL is a widely used hardware description language, utilized by those involved in the design of central processing units (CPUs), motherboards, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and many other types of digital circuitry. VHDL can be used to simulate designs and assess their performance.
All That Is Entertaining About Programming Languages
The above highlights the diversity and intricacy of the programming world, and it only covers a limited number of languages in existence. There are numerous more of them available, ranging from general-purpose to specific applications. Of course, languages are not the only factor in play; frameworks, libraries, integrated development environments (IDEs), and many other components of the programming environment also contribute to the complexity.
Taking into consideration the sheer number of options available, it can be difficult to determine the best course of action for achieving development expertise. However, the variety of possibilities is also what makes this field so appealing. Ultimately, the decision of which path to take is yours alone.
It is our opinion that these programming languages are among the most advantageous to pursue at present (particularly in the top 20 programming languages). These languages will provide a strong foundation for success in your chosen field, allowing you to specialise in areas of particular interest.