Which Country Produces the Most Skilled Software Developers? A Look at the Numbers

Long before the pandemic, recruiting remote programmers and developers was already a crucial asset for enterprises. In light of the growing significance of digital infrastructure and systems, many businesses are now committed to seeking and hiring the best programmers global talent pool has to offer.

How can businesses effectively compete for the best software developers in the world, especially in an era where remote work is feasible? What are the most efficient ways to access top-tier talent?

Vancouver-based programmer Ben Frederickson conducted a study on the most ideal locations for discovering highly skilled software engineers. His research has revealed that the top five countries for this pursuit are:

  • Country: The United States of America.
  • China
  • India
  • An English-speaking nation located in Western Europe.
  • Germany

To conduct his research, Frederickson studied American GitHub user accounts, which were prevalent in that region. However, this method excludes extensive areas like Eastern Europe and South America, as Frederickson pointed out.


  • What is the Perspective of Business Owners?
  • Introducing the Winner of the HackerRank Competition…
    • Discovering the World’s Best Developers for All Platforms.
    • Which Country Produces the Most Persistent Software Engineers?
  • From Which Country Do Most of the World’s Best Programmers Originate?
  • What Countries Have the Most Skilled Coders for Specific Programming Languages?
  • Innovations and Technological Advancements
  • Top 10 Countries in the World for Software Engineers
    • Ukraine
    • China
    • Poland
    • Philippines
    • Romania
    • Brazil
    • Taiwan
    • Republic of Czechia
    • Canada
    • India
  • Hire the Best Coders from Anywhere in the World

What is the Perception of Business Owners?

If you were to ask this question on Quora, you would receive a diverse range of responses. Some may provide general counsel, while others may recount their own encounters.

Responses reveal that there are many valuable learnings derived from real-world experience. For instance, while Russian engineers are known for their technical skills, their individualistic nature renders them unsuitable for team-based work. While talented coders can be found in Costa Rica, it is often challenging to recruit large teams. The Philippines, on the other hand, has a reputation for producing engineers with excellent English skills, long work hours, and innovative designs. However, the country’s subpar infrastructure and high incidence of illness may be significant impediments. Chinese programmers are praised for their intelligence, but their language barrier often results in them charging three times as much as their English-speaking counterparts. Finally, Indian engineers possess extensive qualifications and experience, but their secondary employment obligations often require them to work late.

It can be challenging to determine the veracity of any situation. Nevertheless, one can locate a suitable developer for a project by searching in regions where software engineers make up a smaller portion of the population. Various methods are available to assist in identifying the best location to begin the search.

Introducing the Winner of the HackerRank Competition…

HackerRank is a front-runner in freelance software engineer recruitment, as verified by their extensive research. As part of their marketing strategy, they have initiated a competition open to all developers and coders. The 2023 assessment covers 15 disciplines, such as mathematics, data shell, data structure, and Java, among others.

The success rates of programmers from various countries varied significantly when evaluated on the same task. In general, the most skilled programmers were identified in China and Russia. Specifically, in competitions pertaining to arithmetic, functional programming, and data structure, Chinese programmers exhibited the most outstanding performance. For algorithms, Russian programmers were the undisputed champions, while both the United States and India fell outside the top 20.

Switzerland, Japan, Taiwan, and Italy all performed better than average after China and Russia. Japan, for instance, is lauded for its proficiency in Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, while Italy is celebrated for its exceptional educational materials and data sets.

Discovering the Best Software Engineers in the World for Every Platform.

HackerRank’s area of expertise enables us to determine which countries predominantly use a given programming language. For example, Ruby is particularly popular in Japan but is also extensively utilised in Brazil, Mexico, and Chile. Conversely, programmers in Taiwan tend to favour Python. Java, on the other hand, is a favoured language worldwide.

Which Country Produces the Most Resilient Software Engineers?

While it may seem unproductive, it is critical to take into account the results of countries that have opted out of the contest when selecting candidates for recruitment.

Regardless of the development project, there will always be hurdles to surmount. Therefore, having a persistent team member is crucial. Although technical proficiency is important for programmers, certain soft skills may be the determining factor for success, such as a strong resolve.

Software engineers from nations such as Nigeria, Malaysia, and Pakistan are highly regarded for their dedication and benevolence. Meanwhile, the most devoted and thorough developers were located in Switzerland and Hungary, where they faced and conquered all obstacles with determination.

Which Country Produces the Most Elite Programmers Worldwide?

The HackerRank challenge highlighted the programming abilities of Eastern Europe as a region, with Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic all placing among the top 10 countries.

Eastern Europe is an ideal place to hire remote developers, with approximately 5.7 million individuals working in the IT sector and women accounting for 33% of the workforce. The region’s attractiveness has been boosted by recent IT industry and technology education investments made by governments at all levels. Ukraine and Poland have the highest number of developers in the region.

In most developed countries, the hourly rate and time zone are the most important factors. For example, Western Europe typically has a time discrepancy of one to three hours, while the time difference between the East and West coasts in the United States is typically around seven to ten hours.

Eastern European software developers are recognised for having some of the best English proficiency levels in Europe. Poland, for instance, has the eleventh-highest score in the English Proficiency Index, while Ukraine and Russia have literacy rates of 99.4%.

Although Romania ranks 20th on the HackerRank index, it is a superb country to recruit engineering talent. The A.T. Kearney Global Services Location Index ranks Romania 18th based on factors such as financial allure, the availability of skilled workers, and the technology industry landscape. Additionally, Romania is situated in a favourable time zone, has native English speakers, and provides incentives that appeal to enterprises in Western Europe and North America.

What Nations Have the Most Competent Coders for Specific Programming Languages?

SkillValue, a SaaS company, conducted a series of developer contests in 2023 that focused on algorithmic exercises written in various programming languages. The study results reveal that Mexico is the most promising location for finding a Java/JavaScript expert, while Ireland has the most gifted .NET programmers. Furthermore, the winners of the other programming language competitions were Eastern Europeans: Serbia was hailed for its strong capabilities in C/C++, Hungary for its proficiency in PHP, and Slovakia for its aptitude in Python.

For those considering Europe, directing attention towards its eastern half is recommended. Additionally, France and Italy are gradually gaining recognition. Both countries have made substantial changes to their educational systems in order to elevate coding instruction. France followed Poland’s lead and introduced coding education to primary schools in 2023. Italy, which ranked tenth in the HackerRank challenge, has caught the attention of major tech firms such as Apple in its quest to hire the best software engineers.

Taiwan, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Switzerland, and Bulgaria have all produced exceptional results in the Java programming competition on HackerRank. Furthermore, France, Russia, Italy, Hungary, and Switzerland display remarkable competitiveness in producing C++ programmers.

In recent algorithm competitions, China has exceeded other countries in data structures, functional programming, and mathematics. Hong Kong, Poland, Bulgaria, China, and Russia have adopted Python to the greatest extent.

The results of these competitions can offer an understanding of which countries have the most skilled programmers.

Innovation and Technology

The innovation index helps countries identify which sectors receive the greatest amount of government funding, allowing them to offer their workforce better training and resources. This is an extremely effective means of discovering where the world’s top programmers can be found.

Bloomberg’s Innovation Index regards research and development (R&D) spending, patenting activity, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, and educational attainment as key indicators of a country’s ability to innovate. Research indicates that the following countries rank among the world’s top ten innovative nations:

  • Germany
  • A Nation in the Far East:
  • Singapore
  • Switzerland
  • Sweden
  • Israel
  • Finland
  • Denmark
  • The United States of America:
  • France

Assess your country’s digital infrastructure in comparison to the global standard. The IMD World Competitiveness Center evaluates and ranks nations based on three components.

  1. Capacity for Technology Education
  2. Allocating Budget for R&D of Novel Digital Technologies
  3. Preparedness for the Future: Allocating Budget for Digital Transformation

If their methodology is accurate, these are the top ten nations in 2023:

  1. The United States of America:
  2. Singapore
  3. Denmark
  4. Sweden
  5. The Hong Kong SAR (Special Administrative Region)
  6. Switzerland
  7. Netherlands
  8. A Nation in the Far East:
  9. Norway
  10. Finland

Although there is a link between digital progress and achievements in coding contests, it does not automatically imply that a country will produce exceptional programmers. Countries like Finland and Norway, with outstanding technological infrastructures, have performed badly in all three contests.

Top 10 Nations in the World for Software Engineers

German philosopher Friedrich Hegel used the thesis-antithesis-synthesis pattern to comprehend the cosmos. However, these categories are typically presented in a logical order rather than in reverse chronological order. For instance, in studying historical events, the date itself is often less crucial than their impact on present-day society.

What is the aim of this discussion? This new outlook may inspire us. Even though some nations did not make it to the top 100 of HackerRank, they still enforce rigorous standards for offshore software development. Additionally, it is crucial to consider other countries, particularly when combined with overall data and other rankings.

Consistent with Hegel’s philosophy, this list is not ranked in terms of the best or worst nations. We have compiled a list of the top 10 countries with the highest language proficiency and educational standards to aid you in finding the ideal offshore developer for your team.

HackerRank conducted a contest consisting of a variety of challenges and problem sets. Although not all nations performed well overall, some excelled in specific categories. When searching for a telecommuting developer, it is critical to consider the particular skillset required for the project.

1. Ukraine

In Eastern Europe, Ukraine is a highly desirable location for hiring offshore developers. With over 175,000 individuals employed in the IT sector and another 23,000 fresh graduates joining the workforce every year, Ukraine boasts a pool of intelligent and diligent talent.

Ukrainian coders received an average grade of 88.7% in the HankerRank competition. Additionally, Ukraine has the world’s largest population of C++ programmers, and 80% of its IT workforce are fluent in English.

2. China

It is no wonder that China won the HackerRank contest. With its fast-growing IT sector and the production of 4.7 million technical degree graduates every year, China is a formidable presence. Unlike Eastern Europe, where over 80% of the population speaks English fluently, only about 10% of China’s 1.3 billion inhabitants possess adequate English skills. Additionally, using offshore services is a way to bypass the country’s stringent Intellectual Property regulations.

3. Poland

On the HankerRank scale, Poland has achieved an impressive ranking, securing 3rd place overall and 1st place for Java evaluation. Furthermore, it is among the top 5 for other coding languages such as Python, Shell, and Ruby. These achievements may be attributed to the advantageous time zone and the fact that one-third of Poles speak English proficiently.

4. Philippines

Recent statistics indicate that the Philippines is home to one of the world’s largest communities of English speakers, with over 92% of the population being proficient in the language. Additionally, the government has implemented extensive educational reforms, with a primary emphasis on the advancement of a STEM-centric high school education system.

Typically, delegating several projects to China or Ukraine is more economical; however, when only one job needs to be completed, the Philippines are a perfect choice.

5. Romania

In Romania, the IT employment market is fiercely competitive, and in the last few years, the Romanian government has made considerable investments in IT infrastructure. As a consequence, roughly 90% of Romanian software developers are fluent in English and a variety of other languages.

6. Brazil

Brazil has approximately 6.18 million individuals who speak English as their first language, and the government has established technological education systems to increase this number further. Additionally, the Brazilian IT workforce is dominated by young people, with 38.18% of the population under the age of 24. As with the Philippines, Brazil can be an excellent location for recruiting junior developers for smaller assignments.

7. Taiwan

Taiwan has achieved 7th place in the HackerRank rankings for functional programming and data structures. Over the years, the Taiwanese government has invested in STEM education and IT infrastructure with a strategic goal of transforming the country into ‘Asia’s Silicon Valley’.

The government is attempting to tackle the shortage of English-fluent IT professionals in Taiwan by examining the possibility of designating English as an official language.

8. Czechia

Roughly 7,000 students per year graduate from Czechia’s universities with technology-related diplomas. Salaries in this sector are generally higher than in Romania and Ukraine, making it a desirable alternative for businesses seeking to employ from the UK or US.

9. Canada

STEM disciplines account for roughly 18.6% of Canadian graduates each year. Toronto, Calgary, and Halifax are all home to thriving technology communities, despite their relatively low ranking (# 21) on HackerRank. Canada’s proximity to the United States and shared time zone make it an appealing business partner. Moreover, Canada’s status as a developed nation leads to higher median salaries compared to other countries.

10. India

India did not perform well in the HackerRank challenge and is trailing behind its South American and European counterparts. Despite the challenges and limitations, India remains a popular destination for remote IT personnel.

Given that India is the second-largest English-speaking nation, employers in the US and UK frequently search for software engineers to recruit from India. Each year, India produces 2.6 million new STEM graduates, with a strong emphasis on math in the educational system.

Hire the Best Programmers Anywhere in the World

As mentioned earlier, the top programmers worldwide may use various methods and rankings. HackerRank compiled this ranking based on the most popular domains in each nation and the types of tests they conduct. They observed that while Chinese programmers were competing in arithmetic contests, their Czech counterparts preferred shell competitions. If you’re seeking a shell expert, Serbia might be worth considering as a potential choice.

With the exception of Malaysia, Pakistan, and Taiwan (who used C++) (Python), almost all of the participants employed Java. Python was preferred by most programmers in Taiwan, whereas those in Malaysia and Pakistan strongly favoured C++. Based on SkillValue’s observations, Slovakia is the best source of talented Python programmers, while Serbia comes out on top for C/C++ programmers. The greatest region for discovering experts in both of these languages is in East European countries.

For recruiting novice developers for your project, the Philippines and Brazil can be excellent locations. We have created a list to assist you in identifying the most appropriate areas to initiate the recruitment process based on your specific requirements. Please contact us with any further inquiries regarding identifying the world’s top programmers.

Over the past decade, Works has emerged as a leading IT recruitment agency. We are well-versed in locating the most skilled programmers and utilizing the most effective methods to interview and select the most appropriate candidates for any team. If you would like to take advantage of our expertise, please contact us, and we will be pleased to help you locate the ideal professionals for your organization.

Join the Top 1% of Remote Developers and Designers

Works connects the top 1% of remote developers and designers with the leading brands and startups around the world. We focus on sophisticated, challenging tier-one projects which require highly skilled talent and problem solvers.
seasoned project manager reviewing remote software engineer's progress on software development project, hired from Works blog.join_marketplace.your_wayexperienced remote UI / UX designer working remotely at home while working on UI / UX & product design projects on Works blog.join_marketplace.freelance_jobs