In 2023, Google made a major announcement that involved rewriting its Android operating system entirely, using the Kotlin programming language. This big move held strategic importance, as it aimed to promote Kotlin among Android developers and establish a universal programming language. Additionally, it served as a subtle encouragement for Java developers to explore Kotlin as an alternative.
Although it has been a year since its debut, the Kotlin programming language has quickly risen in popularity among developers. Despite this trend, it is important to note that Java remains one of the most utilised and popular programming languages today, prompting the ongoing viability of this language for the creation of Android applications. As a result, Android developers can still rely on Java as their primary programming language.
Deciding on the most appropriate programming language for a project is a challenging undertaking. Should developers opt for the modern Kotlin as recommended by Google, or stick with a more established language like Java? To determine which one aligns better with specific project requirements, it is essential to compare the two languages based on their features and capabilities.
Kotlin: Like Having a Stylish New Neighbour
In 2023, Google made a daring move by making the Kotlin programming language publicly available, with a clear goal of offering Android developers a more capable and effective language. The need for Kotlin arose due to the fact that, although Java was the top choice for app development, it lacked some of the modern features and performance that Google considered essential.
The growing popularity of Kotlin among mobile developers can be primarily attributed to Google’s enthusiastic support of this language. Ever since Google announced Kotlin as its preferred language for Android development, it has gained significant traction and is now widely embraced by major corporations like Netflix, Pinterest, Airbnb and Twitter. This relatively new programming language has generated considerable interest, with many recognising its potential as a potent development tool.
In that case, what prospective results could one anticipate from utilising Kotlin to augment the Java development process? Kotlin allows developers to tackle common problems while also introducing various other enhancements. Some of these benefits include:
Interoperability.With a goal to become the preferred language for all platforms, Kotlin is highly interoperable with other programming languages, making it a desirable option for developers. It permits the use of a broad spectrum of libraries and facilitates the development of modules that can be used with Java-based applications.
Code Efficiency.One of the major advantages of Kotlin over Java is its syntax. It is both concise and clear, allowing developers to create Android projects with significantly less time investment. It also reduces the likelihood of encountering errors, even in complex and extensive projects.
Writing Code with Contemporary Techniques.As a relatively new programming language, Kotlin allows for the use of contemporary programming methods in your work, including delegates, extension functions and higher-order functions. This enables developers to apply the most current and effective best practices while developing software.
No More Raw Types:Raw types were once commonly used in programming and even continued to be utilised for the sake of compatibility after the widespread adoption of generics. Nonetheless, it is widely recognised that raw types can result in potential runtime problems. In response, Kotlin does not allow for the use of raw types, thereby ensuring that code is more type-safe.
Unchecked Boxes:While some Java programmers argue in favour of using checked exceptions to handle errors, this often leads to developers dedicating a significant amount of time to identifying the error source, which sometimes results in empty catch blocks. To tackle this issue, Kotlin has eliminated the need for checked exceptions altogether.
Null-safe Variables.The NullPointerException is a common issue that arises during the development of Android applications. To address this, Kotlin provides a null safety check on all variables, ensuring that they are never assigned a null value. The language does not support variables with null values natively, but in certain circumstances, it is possible to find a workaround.
Undoubtedly, there are numerous advantages to using Kotlin instead of Java, which may lead to the conclusion that Kotlin is the superior option. However, to gain a more comprehensive view, it is important to also note the downsides of Kotlin as well. The language’s weaknesses include:
Steep Learning Curve.Although it may seem contradictory to claim that a language that is easy to read and write may be difficult for programmers to learn, those who are accustomed to other programming languages may find it more challenging to comprehend the conciseness of Kotlin. Achieving mastery of Kotlin requires a re-evaluation of the language’s limitations.
Lengthy Compilation Time.Kotlin’s compilation time is frequently reported to be longer than that of Java. Although some projects may benefit from Kotlin’s greater efficiency as compared to Java, such instances are considered rare and not the norm.
Excessive Boilerplate Code.While Kotlin is praised for its declarative nature, this can lead to the creation of unnecessary boilerplate code when compiling to JVM bytecode. This can result in verbose and lengthy code, ultimately reducing the efficiency of the language.
Small Developer Community.Despite its relative newness, Kotlin is still in the process of establishing a robust and supportive development community. This differs from the more established Java community, which offers customers a wider range of services.
A Prime Instance of Java
Java has been a popular language choice among developers for a long time because of its extensive use in creating Android applications. Initially, Android was developed in Java, making it comparatively uncomplicated to create applications for the platform. However, with the introduction of Kotlin, many developers are now questioning whether or not it is still advantageous to use Java for Android app development.
Although the benefits of transitioning from Java to Kotlin may seem clear, it is not an easy decision to make. Java has been in existence for a considerable amount of time and continues to be widely used, which may explain why some developers may be hesitant to switch to a different language. It is crucial that we examine a few possible reasons for this before making any decisions.
Easy to Learn.Java is a beginner-friendly language that is easy to learn, write, and understand. Even without utilizing the numerous online learning resources available, its intuitive syntax makes it more accessible for anyone starting their first project.
Highly Portable.Java is extremely portable between devices and operating systems thanks to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This implies that software and applications built with Java can be transferred effortlessly to other systems without any modifications.
Dependability for Android.Despite the growing popularity of Kotlin in Android development, this does not imply that the platform is entirely disregarding Java. A significant number of essential Java libraries are still present in the Android Software Development Kit (SDK), facilitating a smooth transition from Java development to Android development.
Compact Software.Java programs often consume less memory, making them more adaptable to optimization. This is beneficial for those creating an upgraded version of an application that requires enhanced efficiency. Furthermore, the imperative nature of Java means that it is feasible to achieve the desired outcome using fewer and smaller applications.
Extensive Developer Community.It is customary for developers to face challenges while programming with any language. Luckily, this is mitigated by the existence of a vast network of skilled Java developers, who can offer assistance. If you encounter an issue while working with Java, be assured that you can find help online.
Undoubtedly, Kotlin is the most appropriate choice for Android development; however, there are certain benefits to using Java. It is also important to take into account the possible downsides of Java, such as:
Verbosity.Java is a verbose language, requiring a larger amount of code to achieve the same level of functionality that can be accomplished with significantly fewer lines of code in Kotlin. This may increase the risk of encountering errors and bugs, as well as the possibility of the program becoming excessively large and intricate. Furthermore, this increase in code can prolong the total development time before the product is ready for release.
Slow Performance.If you have ever worked with a contemporary language, such as Kotlin, you will recognize the many benefits it offers over its precursor, Java. One of these advantages is the enhanced development speed it provides. Furthermore, Java is recognized for being memory-intensive, which could make it unsuitable for use on older computers. This could be a significant disadvantage for those relying on such machines.
Lacks Modern Conveniences.Despite the regular updates to Java, it may still appear outmoded and be disheartening for developers who are accustomed to more contemporary programming methods. In contrast, Kotlin can leverage the latest concepts and techniques available in application development.
Which Option Is Superior?
It may seem like migrating to Kotlin is a mandatory step, but currently, there is no such requirement. Depending on the proficiency and knowledge of the developers, Java can be an exceptional option for Android development. Furthermore, Kotlin’s close connection with Java should make the transition process relatively uncomplicated when it becomes necessary.
It is uncertain if Kotlin will ultimately become the primary programming language for Android development; nonetheless, it is already establishing new norms and introducing fresh techniques for Android development. These changes, for better or worse, will require developers to adapt their methods accordingly.