Which Is Better, Python or Java?

We, as IT professionals, are familiar with situations where our expertise is challenged by someone who asks us if they know more about Java or Python. Nevertheless, this does not accurately reflect the facts.

Java and Python, being general-purpose object-oriented languages, are both commonly used for creating web applications. Although Python may seem more preferable if we only consider the date it was first launched, there are other factors that may make Java the better choice. Python became publicly available in 2000 while Java has been accessible since the 1990s.

To determine the superiority of one language over the other, it is imperative to assess various factors such as performance, scalability, machine code, security, usability, syntax, and compatibility with other technologies.

Programming languages are vital in the field of computer science, as they serve as the foundation of a programmer’s toolkit and are necessary for most coding projects. Making a choice between Java and Python can be a challenging task.

Python and Java, the two most prominent programming languages, are in contention for the top spot. While Python has made significant progress recently, Java remains dominant.

At first sight, these languages may seem indistinguishable, and both of them are capable of performing most tasks. However, when making your ultimate decision, it is essential to take into account the substantial differences between them. We will describe each language and its essential features, and then compare how they are utilized within different areas of computer science.

Before making a decision, it is necessary to comprehend the fundamental differences between Python and Java. To assist you in making an informed decision, we will first provide a summary of each language and its primary features, followed by a comparison across various areas of computer science.

Distinguishing Features of Python and Java

  • Python

    Python is a high-level programming language created by a research centre in the Netherlands. The language was developed to generate system administration tools more easily than C, it was designed with readability and simplicity in mind, borrowing inspiration from languages like Algol68, Pascal, and ABC. Python’s dynamic typing permits it to be useful for various programming assignments.

    When compared with other languages, Python is a viable option for Rapid Application Development, primarily due to in-built data structures, dynamic typing and binding capabilities, and low maintenance costs.

    Python is a popular alternative because of its resource library and free interpreter, making it cost-effective for those who want to avoid extra expenditures. Additionally, Python is a desirable choice due to its broad range of practical applications.
  • Java

    Java is a well-known, concurrent, statically typed and object-oriented language. Its objective is to be a Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA) language, which is achieved by using the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), making it possible to execute Java code on any platform with minimal reliance on external components.

Key Differences between Python and Java: A Comparison

It is generally recognized that both Python and Java are highly regarded languages. To better comprehend the unique characteristics of each language, we have created a table that compares their distinguishing features.

When choosing a language for a project, speed is a crucial factor to consider. A comprehensive evaluation of Python and Java’s performance can be found in the ‘benchmarks-game’ project.

It is crucial to remember that performance is not solely dependent on the speed of the language, but also on the program’s implementation. Specifically, the performance of third-party libraries is often the most critical factor.

Both Java and Python are interpreted via virtual machines from their compiled bytecode, which means that there is no difference in terms of the supported platforms. While the two languages share some similar operations, they are still distinct from one another.

Java includes a Just-in-time (JIT) compiler that optimises code for execution time. This compiler interprets bytecode and generates machine code that can be executed immediately, resulting in a significant improvement in the language’s speed and efficiency. However, Java code can become lengthy and complicated despite this.

During compile time, Python is processed, and variables are considered. Code that is written in dynamic-type syntax must also be platform-independent, resulting in a longer and more detailed syntax.

Testing at runtime may cause problems with Python, which could potentially bring the entire application to a halt. As a result, the efficiency and speed of the language have been negatively affected.

In some instances, the disparities between Python and Java can be quite significant. For example, Java can execute a binary tree test ten times faster than Python.

Python vs Java Syntax

Python is a continually developing programming language. It enables users to avoid manually entering variables, which are instead input during the software’s execution process. Additionally, Python’s similarity to the English language makes it easy to comprehend.

The absence of indentation or closing braces is another factor that adds to the language’s user-friendliness. This results in a writing style that is highly legible and approachable.

Java is unlike other programming languages in that it has stringent syntactical requirements, such as the obligation to explicitly declare all variables. If there are any syntax or semantic errors, the program will fail to execute.

Constructing a multi-line block or method in Java necessitates enclosing the lines within curly brackets. In contrast, Python utilises indentation when designing multi-line sections.

Code Readability

Code written in interpreted languages like Python and Java must be clear and legible to ensure that other programmers can comprehend it. Python, in particular, is a popular choice among developers due to its concise syntax and minimal maintenance requirements, which make it easier to create and maintain applications.

With advancements in Java, increased modularisation is offered, which simplifies the process of software application creation. This encourages programmers to take more time and put in extra effort to create high-quality applications. Each module operates independently while also forming part of a larger code library. This enables engineers to become more familiar with new functions and capabilities, giving them extra time to perfect their programs.

Python vs Java for Machine Learning

Python’s simple syntax has made it a popular option for programmers in all disciplines. Its ease of use has enabled them to experiment with machine learning and apply it in their various fields. As a result, many companies have embraced machine learning through Python. Python’s substantial library of resources, continuously explored and expanded, is a testament to its extensive experience in developing enterprise-level machine learning. Maximising machine learning necessitates learning everything there is to know about available Python libraries.

Opinions differ regarding whether Java could be a viable option for machine learning. Its benefits, such as its ease of debugging and implementation, make it suitable for both enterprise and government systems. Developers have access to Java libraries such as Weka, Mallet, Deeplearning4j, and MOA.

Python vs Java: A Side-by-Side Comparison

Technology Python Java
Popularity Very popular Very popular
Syntax Easy to learn and use Complex includes a learning curve
Performance Slower than Java in various implementations Relatively very fast
Cross-Platform Yes Yes, thanks to the JVM
Backend Frameworks Django, Flask Spring, Blade
Machine Learning Libraries Tensorflow, Pytorch
Game Development Engines Cocos, Panda3d JMonkeyEngine
Learning curve Easy to learn Difficult to learn Weka, Mallet, Deeplearning4j, MOA
Typing Dynamically-typed Statically-typed
Best for Artificial Intelligence, Data Science and Machine Learning Enterprise, Embedded and Cross-platform application
Program Example print(“Hello World”) public class Simple
public static void main(String args[])
System.out.println(“Hello World”);


Python vs Java: Which is the Better Choice?

Java and Python are powerful and versatile programming languages. Both have pros and cons, so the choice depends on how they are intended to be used. Both are general-purpose programming languages that can be used to develop programs for diverse purposes such as games, web applications, scientific simulations, and more.

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